O & M Materials Bibliography

by DB-LINK on Jun 1, 2013
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This is a partial list of materials on this topic available from the NCDB Catalog Database.  If you have additional questions, please contact us via email:

Updated 6/2013


Commentary – Traffic Signals and Safety/ Bourquin, Gene, COMS; Sauerburger, Dona, COMS. 2009, THE DEAF-BLIND AMERICAN, vol. 48, #2, Winter 2009, pp. 24-25 This commentary informs travelers who are Deaf-blind to make sure they find and push the pedestrian button before crossing streets. Many traffic signals, especially in the suburbs, are now "actuated," which means that the traffic signals are controlled by a computer. These traffic signals change to green for different amounts of time, depending on how many cars and trucks are waiting - it can be green for as little as 5 seconds. To get enough time to cross at these signals, you must push the "pedestrian button." Some signals in downtown areas are actuated, but most are not.


Comments from an O&M Specialist who Works with Deafblind Children and Adults --Mays, Teresa. FALL DVIQ, vol. 51, #1, 2005, pp. 21. (2005)The author is the Program Director at the Low Vision Clinic for Deaf-blind Services Arkansas. She briefly describes the changing role of the Orientation and Mobility Specialist over the past 50 years which now includes serving children and adults who have a combined vision and hearing loss.


Communicating with People While Traveling Independently - Deaf Blind People CAN!/ Poirier, Dianne. THE DEAF-BLIND AMERICAN, vol. 48, #2, Winter 2009, pp. 2-6 (2009)Dianne Poerier is deaf-blind as a result of Usher syndrome type 1. After losing her vision she would never go anywhere without an SSP (support service provider). One evening she needed to go to the grocery store, so she went for the first time by herself, using her guiding cane. She had a successful experience with support from grocery store clerks. Dianne uses print in palm to communicate with others. She gives examples of her travels on buses, in malls, banks, Union Station in DC. Dianne writes about her move to an new office and the assistance she received in learning routes from an orientation and mobility specialist.


Dog Guides and Deaf-Blindness: The Deaf-Blind Component of the Special Needs Program at Guiding Eyes for the Blind --Martine, Andrea, B.A.; Meteyer, Michael, M.A.; Purcell, Ellin, B.S.; Kubrycki, Kathy. INSIGHT: RESEARCH AND PRACTICE IN VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND BLINDNESS, vol. 5, #1, Spring 2012, pp. 38-40. (2012) Many people who are deaf-blind may benefit from the enhanced opportunities for travel that a dog guide offers. Since its inception in the 1950s, Guiding Eyes for the Blind has successfully trained nearly forty clients who are deaf-blind as dog guide users. Today, more than a third of the current applicants to Guiding Eyes' Special Needs Program have deaf-blindness. This paper is a brief description of the deaf-blind component within Guiding Eyes for the Blind Special Needs Department, including descriptions of acceptance criteria, the training process, and a brief account of staff and graduates. 


Enhancing Independence and Safety for Blind and Deaf-Blind Public Transit Riders --Azenkot, Shiri; Prasain, Sanjana; Borning, Alan; Fortuna, Emily; Ladner, Richard E.; Wobbrock, Jacob O. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. (2011) Blind and deaf-blind people often rely on public transit for everyday mobility, but using transit can be challenging for them. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 blind and deaf-blind people to understand how they use public transit and what human values were important to them in this domain. Two key values were identified: independence and safety. We developed GoBraille, two related Braille-based applications that provide information about buses and bus stops while supporting the key values. GoBraille is built on MoBraille, a novel framework that enables a Braille display to benefit from many features in a smartphone without knowledge of proprietary, device-specific protocols. Finally, we conducted user studies with blind people to demonstrate that GoBraille enables people to travel more independently and safely. We also conducted co-design with a deaf-blind person, finding that a minimalist interface, with short input and output messages, was most effective for this population. Available on the web: 


Foundations of Orientation and Mobility: Volume I - History and Theory / Wiener, William R. (Ed.); Welsh, Richard L. (Ed.); Blasch, Bruce B. (Ed.) -- AFB Press: 2010, 699 (2010)This volume addresses the theoretical foundations of the discipline of orientation and mobility (O&M) and its history and development. It includes sections on the relationship between O&M and human sensory systems (e.g., vision, hearing, kinesthetic), cognition, and psychosocial functioning; mobility systems and adaptations such as technology, dog guides, orientation aids, and environmental accessibility; and the profession of O&M. Publisher's web site:


Foundations of Orientation and Mobility: Volume II - Instructional Strategies and Practical Applications / Wiener, William R. (Ed.); Welsh, Richard L. (Ed.); Blasch, Bruce B. (Ed.) -- AFB Press: 2010, 833. (2010)This volume covers strategies to teach orientation and mobility based on the theoretical principles described in volume I. It includes strategies for the improvement of basic sensory systems for the purpose of learning to travel without vision; teaching orientation and mobility (O&M) to general groups of students including very young children, school-age children, adults, and seniors; teaching students to use orientation aids and to travel in complex situations (e.g., complex environments, adverse weather conditions); and teaching O&M to students who have additional disabilities (deaf-blind, physical and health impairments, cognitive impairments, and cortical visual impairment). Publisher's web site:


Guiding Tasks for Interpreters Working with Deaf-Blind Travelers/ Bourquin, Eug. VIEWS, Vol. 22, #11, December 2005, pp. 17-13 (2005)Article includes specific techniques and guidelines for human guides working with travelers who are deaf-blind. The author is certified in O&M, interpreting and low vision.


Have GPS, Will Travel/ Spiers, Elizabeth. THE DEAF-BLIND AMERICAN, vol. 48, #2, Winter 2009, pp. 26-29 ( 2009) This article is about Joe Jammer, who is hard of hearing and blind. At the time of the article he was a student at Helen Keller National Center in New York. He obtained his Braille Sense Plus and GPS add-on through the California Department of Vocational Rehabilitation and received training through the Helen Keller Technology Department. His Braille Sense has email, internet service, word processing, and an address book. He is still learning these functions and uses the Braille Sense now mainly for the GPS. Mr. Jammer's Braille Sense Plus also has an LCD display so that sighted people who don't know braille can communicate with him if needed, and vice versa. He now can travel to a restaurant of his choice and know exactly how to go. He can take a cab anywhere and tell the driver the best and quickest way to his destination by using his GPS.


How I Travel: Orientation and Mobility from a Blind and Hard of Hearing Perspective / Davert, Scott. THE DEAF-BLIND AMERICAN, vol. 48, #2, Winter 2009, pp. 13-17 (2009) This article is by a person who is blind and hard of hearing. He writes about his own traveling experiences and the many tools he uses to get around. He shares adaptations he has made, with training from orientation and mobility specialists, to aid him in being able to travel independently. A compass is often used as well as writing down clear instructions for later use. He also uses a BrailleNote with GPS and a street crossing card that can explain to a passerby that he is requesting assistance.


Independent Travel Tips for deaf-Blind People/ Frank, Steven Alvin. THE DEAF-BLIND AMERICAN, vol. 48, #2, Winter 2009, pp. 30-35 (2009)The author of this article is deaf-blind. He describes traveling to Las Vegas to attend the Deaf Seniors of America (DSA) conference independently without a support service provider (SSP). During the conference he did have interpreters and SSP services. On occasion at the conference he did not use an SSP. He uses index cards with Braille on one side and English printed on the other. He also uses many other forms of communication throughout the journey and shares how he problem solves situations that may be problematic.


Let's Make That Functional, Let's Move!: And Let's Keep That Body and Brain in Sync --Ayer, Lyn. OREGON DEAF-BLIND PROJECT, Summer/Fall 2012, pp. 5-6. (2012) This article provides some ideas on things to think about or do to strengthen the movement-brain connection. It reminds the reader that movement is essential to learning. Available on the web:


Man’s best Friend/ Meirovich, Thamara. DBI REVIEW, #39, Janurary-June 2007, pp. 30-31 (2007) The author is the director of the Ali Hope Foundation. The Foundation has a goal of improving the independence and well-being of deaf and deafblind Israelis through the provision of specially-trained Hearing Dogs.


Orientation and Mobility: School-Aged Students with Deafblindness and/or Multiple Disabilities --Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network. Pittsburgh: (2005)Materials from a Videoconference by PTTAN held February 14, 2005. Video presentation included.


Orientation and Mobility for Everyone --Anthony, Tanni. Austin, TX: Texas Deafblind Project. 2005 Texas Symposium on Deafblindness. (2005)Copies of overheads to augment a presentation about orientation and mobility for everyone. Identifies the following areas as necessary for developing a plan: teamwork, accurate sensory assessment, communication system, and routine. Movement is broken out into three stages with accompanying strategies: holding on, letting go and doing it yourself. Mentions benefits of team planning and teaching strategies.


Orientation and Mobility for People who are Deafblind --Grassick, Sharon Barrey; Hamilton, Robin; Scott, Bronwen. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia. (2007)This is text of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. This presentation is on the creation of an information sheet. 'Safely Guiding Individuals Who Are Deafblind', as well as showing segments from a training DVD that is part of a comprehensive Deafblindness Training Package being produced through Senses Foundation.


Providing Infused O & M Services and Support to Children With Deafblindness, Their Families and Educational Team Members --Gervasoni, Ed, Ed.S., COMS, CVRT. Austin, TX: Texas Deafblind Project. 2007 Texas Symposium on Deafblindness. (2007)This presentation discusses guiding principles for instruction, early intervention O & M strategies, problem solving skills, street crossing strategies, information on auditory behaviors in blind travelers and more.


Sound of Silence/ van Grinsven, Roland. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia (2007) This is a brief summary of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. This presentation explains and discusses the principles, interaction and appearance of the crossing cane which would enable the deaf blind to cross streets with confidence, independently and safely.


Special Issue on Orientation and Mobility --Duffy, Maureen A. Are you Aware? Newsletter, vol.2, #3, July 2008. (2008)This issue on Orientation and Mobility provides an understanding of the importance of O&M in enhancing quality of life and personal independence for all who live with vision loss. Also included are some online resources.


Street Crossing Signs: Travelers Who Are Deaf-Blind Obtaining Assistance When Pedestrians Are Not Present / Bourquin, Eugene, A.; Hogan, Susanne H.; Sauerburger, Dona J. AER JOURNAL: RESEARCH AND PRACTICE IN VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND BLINDNESS, vol. 3, #4, Fall 2010, pp. 139-145 (2010) There are streets and lanes where the risk of crossing is unacceptable for deaf-blind pedestrians and a lack of passing pedestrians presents a barrier to asking for help. It has been suggested that assistance to cross a street can be obtained by soliciting help from passing drivers. Heretofore, there have been no studies available to assess the efficacy of using printed signs to prompt drivers to stop their vehicles and offer assistance. This article describes a pilot study which indicates that under particular conditions, travelers can effectively gain assistance to traverse a street using a sign to get help from passing drivers.


Stroller and Wheelchair Mobility: Turning passive Transports Into “Teachable Moments” --Tellefson, Mary. TX SENSEABILITIES, vol. 5, #1, Winter 2011, pp. 19-23. (2011) The author describes a variety of ways to actively engage individuals who are not traveling independently. Ideas include introducing object symbols, choices of locations, activities, and companions, using a cane, and traveling for a functional purpose. Available on the web: 


Studies on Obtaining Assistance by Travelers Who Are Deaf-Blind --Bourquin, Eugene; Moon, James. JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & BLINDNESS, vol. 102, #6, June 2008, pp. 352-361. (2008) This article provides a review of the history of street-crossing or assistance cards by individuals who are deaf-blind and reports the results of two studies that investigated the effect of the size of the card used and gender on receipt of assistance by passersby.


TAPS: Teaching Age-Appropriate Purposeful Skills: An Orientation & Mobility Curriculum for Students with Visual Impairments --Pogrund, Rona; Sewell, Debra; Anderson, Heidi; Calaci, Lisa; Cowart, Mary Faith; Gonzalez, Carolina M.; Robertson-Smith, Burnsteen; Marsh, Ruth Ann. --Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired. Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind. (2012) This curriculum is intended for students ages 3 to 21 who are blind or who have low vision. It is appropriate for students who also have other disabilities including deaf-blindness, orthopedic impairments, other health impairments, and developmental delays. The curriculum contains sections on program development (assessment, developing IEPs, planning, and evaluation); educational goals and teaching strategies in the home, campus, residential and commercial environments; and adaptive mobility devices, including diagrams and instruction for their assembly. Also included is information about inclement weather activities, electronic travel devices, use of wheelchairs, walkers, and other ambulatory aids. Appendices include a screening instrument and assessment and curriculum resources for infants. There are three separate parts. Part 1: "The Curriculum"; Part 2: "Comprehensive Initial and Ongoing Evaluation," which is intended to be used for each student throughout the student's education programming to assess performance and provide a means for ongoing evaluation and record-keeping to demonstrate student progress; Part 3: "Appendices"; Part 4: "Supplement: Street Crossings for Travelers Who Are Visually Impaired." The curriculum can be ordered from Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, 1100 W. 45th St., Austin, TX 78756-3494, (512) 454-8631. Publisher's web site:


Teaching Deaf-Blind People to Communicate and Interact with the Public: Critical Issues for Travelers Who Are Deaf-Blind / Bourquin, Eugene; Sauerburger, Dona. 2006, REVIEW, vol. 37, #3, pp. 109-116 (2006)Travelers with dual sensory losses present rehabilitation professionals with additional tasks and responsibilities that expand the instructional curriculum. Effective instruction in rehabilitation and orientation and mobility includes teaching strategies and tools for dealing with unfamiliar people through communication (conveying information) and interaction (knowing when and how to use specific communication techniques). The techniques presented in this article are the result of the authors' collective experiences with people who are deaf-blind, including several decades of instructing these travelers in community-based and residential settings. It includes effective communication strategies and effective strategies for interaction with the public.


Using the Teaching Cane Startegy with Children Who are Deaf-Blind --Tellefson, Mary. DVIQ, Spring 2009, pp.28-31. (2009)The cane teaching startegy, a process put forth by the author, is an approach to early cane use that facilitates all areas of development.


Wheelchair Orientation & Mobility Webcast --Crawford, Scott. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind. (2011) In this webcast James Scott Crawford, a Certified Orientation and Mobility Specialist, addresses the training needs of people with visual impairment who use power wheelchairs as their primary mode of transportation. Ch 1 - Introduction, Ch 2 - Navigating Tight Spaces, Ch 3 - Navigating Doors, Ch 4 - Curb Ramps, Ch 5 - Timing on Street Crossings, Ch 6 – Transportation, Ch 7 - Working with Physical and Occupational Therapists. Publisher's web site: 

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