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Routines Bibliography

by DB-LINK on Feb 1, 2013
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This is a partial list of materials on this topic available from the NCDB Catalog Database.  If you have additional questions, please contact us via email:

Updated 2/2013


Activity-Based Approach to Early Intervention --Bricker, Diane; Juliann J. Woods Cripe. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. (1997) This how-to resource describes the field-tested practice of activity-based intervention (ABI). Based on a synthesis of behavior analytic and early childhood intervention approaches, ABI utilizes a child's motivations, interests, and social interactions- in routine, planned, or child-initiated activities- to enhance learning naturally in a variety of settings. Consistent with current educational reforms, ABI is ideal for developing children's IEP/IFSP goals and objectives.


Better Ways To Build Educational Routines. Part I: Routines: Understanding Their Power: Part II: Implementing a Program or Routine-Based Instruction for Students with Severe Handicaps --Carreiro, P; Townsend, S; Fans, Deni. (88) This paper is presented in two separately authored parts. Part I outlines the importance of routines as an instrinsic part of the teaching process. and reviews the potential benefits to the student of routine-based teaching. Part II provides a concrete example of the utility of routine-based teaching for students with severe handicaps.


Building Communication into Daily Routines: Communication Skills and Strategies for Individuals Working with Young Children Who Have Sensory Impairments --Newman, Todd (ed.) --SKI*HI. Logan, UT: HOPE Inc. What Do I Do Now? - Unit 6. (1997) This video is the sixth in a series of 24 that provides inservice training for staff in preschool and elementary school settings on the communication needs of children with sensory impairments. The purpose of the program is to provide basic instruction for paraeducators that focuses on the unique communication needs of these children. This unit discusses how repetition and consistent routines help to develop communication skills, and give children security. Provides guidelines for developing routines: 1) determine the child's preferred expressive and receptive communication system, 2) use that system to communicate about the events, objects, and people in his/her day, 3) have consistent routines, 4) provide opportunities within the routines for the child to initiate communication, 5) structure the day's events into a calendar system, 6) be patient while the child learns the routine, and 7) provide motivating activities for the child to encourage communication development. Includes a printed packet which contains the summary of the main points of the video, discussion topics, space for notetaking, and exercises for classroom application. Also includes an evaluation form for the paraeducator to use in coordinating with the supervising teacher before and after implementing training ideas, and a laminated card to be taken into the classroom for a quick reminders of the unit. Available from HOPE, Inc., 55 East 100 North, Suite 203, Logan, UT 84321; PH/FAX: (435) 752-9533. Publisher's web site:


Child-Guided Strategies: The van Dijk Approach to Assessment --Nelson, Catherine; van Dijk, Jan; Oster, Teresa; McDonnell, Andrea. -- American Printing House for the Blind, Inc. 2009, 186.This guidebook describes the assessment of children who are deaf-blind using an approach developed by Dr. Jan van Dijk. Assessment techniques and general intervention strategies are provided for the following eight characteristics: behavioral state (state of arousal or alertness), orienting response (direction of attention to a stimulus), learning channels (sensory avenues children use to take in information), approach-withdrawal (what a child likes and dislikes), memory (processes that involve habituation, anticipation, and routine learning), social interactions, communication, and problem-solving. Videoclips of two children (ages 7 and 25 months) demonstrating the concepts described in the book are provided on a DVD. The book also describes how to write a summary of assessment findings and includes a sample assessment of an 18-year-old with disabilities. Appendices contain parent interview questions, observation worksheets, and an assessment summary form. The forms are also provided on a CD. Publisher's web site:


Creating Classroom Environments that Nurture Independence for Children who are Deafblind: Final Report --Rowland, Charity; Schweigert, Philip. Portland, OR: Oregon Health Sciences University. (2000) This final report describes activities and accomplishments of a four-year federally supported project to develop independence in 12 young children (ages 3-5) with deaf-blindness enrolled in the Portland Public Schools Early Intervention Program. The project focused on helping teachers learn to target communicative and cognitive learning opportunities across the entire spectrum of everyday classroom activities and thus increase students' independent behavior. The project model involved assessment of both child skills and the social and physical environment, intervention by embedding instruction into routine activities using logically occurring antecedents and consequences, and a targeted outcome of child mastery of the social and physical environments as evidenced by interactions with people and objects. The project produced an inventory and manual to help teachers identify natural cues for certain behaviors and arrange the social and physical environment to facilitate learning.


Developing Children's Language Skills in Inclusive Early Childhood Classrooms --Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Grisham-Brown, Jennifer. DIMENSIONS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD, Summer 1997, pp. 6-13. (1997) This article provides guidelines to help children with disabilities learn language and communication skills during everyday activities and routines in early intervention classrooms. It stresses the importance of teamwork as an effective intervention strategy. Provides information on assessment including what to assess, how to assess in a natural environment, and how to identify goals. Provides information on planning IEPs and classroom activities to embed IEP goals into the inclusive classroom setting. Provides a sample matrix to embed language skills in a daily schedule.


Eight Commandments of Communication --Gothelf, Carol; Petroff, Jerry. Gothelf & Petroff. (2000) This is a list presented at the 2000 Project Directors Meeting describing the eight things that must be in place in order for effective communication to take place. Provides ways understand if an individual's behavior is a form of communication, identifying objects, persons and activities that the individual likes and dislikes, creating a daily routine, encouraging communication and building rapport, and making conversation.


Eliminating Challenging Behaviors in Multiple Environments Throughout the Entire Day --Umbreit, John. EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, December 1997, pp. 321-330. (1997) This single-subject design study examined the potential of functional assessment-based intervention applied in multiple natural environments through the day. The assessment and intervention involved two phases with a young woman with deaf-blindness. Phase one (functional assessment) included structured interviews and observations, hypothesis development, and hypothesis testing within the context of naturally occurring routines. Phase two (intervention), involved increasing the amount of attention the subject received, while implementing the behavior modification strategies into the natural daily routine.


Embedding Child Skills & Care Giver Competencies Into Caregiving Routines & Family Activities --Stremel, Kathleen. Hattiesburg, MS: University of Southern Mississippi, Dept. of Special Education. (1993) This is a training module with lecture notes, transparencies, and activities to assist participants to develop functional outcomes for infants, toddlers, and children with disabilities and their families. As objectives of the module are participant understanding of the following: ecological models of early intervention in development of an individualized program plan for a child and family; defining of critical features of a child's physical and social environment; determining the degree to which families wish to participate in early intervention; child behaviors across the critical developmental skill areas and environmental factors that affect development; development of functional, integrated goals and objectives across skills and routine/activities; conducting of systematic, data-based early intervention, and methods of teaching parents the skills and competiencies to embed targeted child behaviors and learning processes into caregiving routines and family activities. Templates for 23 transparencies are appended.


Embedding Choice in the Context of Daily Routines: An Experimental Case Study --Bambara, Linda M. et. al. JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR PERSONS WITH SEVERE HANDICAPS, v20 n3 p185-95 Fall 1995. (1995) The effect of individualized, embedded choice opportunities in daily routines on the task initiations and protests by 1 man (age 50) with severe cognitive disabilities was investigated. When routines included opportunities for choice, household and personal care task initiations were high and protests were eliminated.


Embedding Intervention Targets into Caregiving Routines and Other Activities of the Families Choice --Hollingshead, Lorie; Harris, Kristy; Stremel, Kathleen. Hattiesbury, MS: University of Southern Mississippi. (1998) This training module on embedding intervention targets into caregiving routines and other activities of the families' choice is from the Mississippi Early Education Program for Children with Multiple Disabilities and is designed to teach service coordinators and service providers to use family centered strategies. Objectives of the training include teaching practitioners to: 1) identify examples of cultural variability; 2) identify their own behaviors related to the inclusion of families in the intervention process; 3) demonstrate positive communication skills by role playing a family situation; 4) demonstrate knowledge and skills in defining the critical features of a child's physical and social environment; 5) demonstrate knowledge in developing functional, integrated goals and objectives across skills and routines/activities; and 6) demonstrate an understanding of how to assist families/caregivers to utilize interactional processes throughout routines and to identify and implement critical skills embedded within the routine. Include in the module are pre-test and post-test forms, seven activities to illustrate concepts, and sample forms. Transparencies summarizing key information are also provided.


Fabulous Music Routine --Montgomery, Chris; Grim, Casey; Smith, Tish. 2001 Symposium on Deafblindness: Communities & Connections. (2001) This is the handout from the presentation on transdisciplinary teaming at the 2001 Symposium on Deafblindness. It provides the benefits and challenges of transdisciplinary teaming in addition to the components of it. Presents information on teaching with the use of routines, and guidelines for selecting routines. The role of music therapy and routines is presented including the definition of music therapy and the effects rhythm has on behavior. Describes "The Fabulous Music Routine".


Facilitating Infant/Toddler Skills in Family-Child Routines --Stremel, Kathleen; Mathews, Pinkie; Wilson, Rebecca; Molden, Vanessa; Yates, Cynthia; Busbea, Betty; Holston, Jan. Paper presented at the Council for Exceptional Children/Division of Early Childhood International Conference on Children with Special Needs (Washington, DC, December2-6, 1992). (1993) This paper on facilitating skill development of infants and toddlers with disabilities within family-child routines focuses on: (1) developing a routine analysis by incorporating multiple Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) objectives into family-selected routines; (2) utilizing systematic family training procedures to integrate targeted skills into routines; and (3) determining generalization of parent skills. The routine analysis requires conducting multidisciplinary and multipurpose assessments of the child, determining high-preference and low-preference routines and social interactions within the family, determining which specific IFSP objectives can best be incorporated into the targeted routine, determining the level of caregiver skills, and developing a routine sequence. Family training procedures then call for an intervention team member to conduct the routine with the child and another team member to videotape the routine, and having the family caregivers observe the routine and later review the videotape, conduct the intervention at the next visit, and receive feedback. Generalization of parent skills is exhibited when the parent incorporates objectives from old routines into a new routine.


Hands-On Problem Solving for Children with Multiple Disabilities: Guide to Assessment and Teaching Strategies --Rowland, Charity, Ph.D.; Schweigert, Philip, M.Ed. Portland, OR: Center on Self-Determination, Oregon Health Sciences University. (1997) This publication was produced by a research grant. It contains: an introduction to the concept of learned helplessness and justifies the need to teach problem solving skills to children who have sensory deficits; a description of problem solving skills (skills, motivation and flexibility); a description of the research project; a list of thirty-three problem solving skills; assessment strategies; instructional strategies, including embedding opportunities into existing activities and routines and creating new activities; and a section on documenting progress. An 2002 updated version of this publication (same title) is available from Design to Learn, OHSU, Oregon Institute on Disability & Development, 3608 SE Powell Blvd., Portland, OR 97202. Phone: 800-410-7069 (Voice/TTY). E-mail: Publisher's web site:


Increasing the Effectiveness of Communication and Language: Being "In the Zone" --Stremel, Kathleen. Cleveland, OH: Proceedings of the 6th International CHARGE Syndrome Conference, July 25-27th, 2003, Cleveland, OH. (2003)This presentation provides a checklist that parents can use to determine how their children might be more effective communicators. The presentation also emphasizes how specific interactive techniques that are "in the zone" may be implemented in order that children become more effective communicators. These techniques include using: joint attention, joint activities, turn-taking activities, full routines, tangible feedback and reinforcement systems, systematic instruction (school-home), scaffolding, and conversational topics and turns. Also available is a CD-ROM containing an audio version of this presentation.


Independent Living Activity Routines --Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI) Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI) (1996) This book has been written by the residential staff of TSBVI to correspond to the goals and skills in "Independent Living: A Curriculum with Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments" (Loumiet & Levack, 1993). It contains 74 routines in the areas of: personal hygiene and grooming; toileting and feminine hygiene; eating; food management and money. Each routine is divided into activity location, specific challenges related to visual impairment, suggested materials, methods and adaptation, and special considerations for students who have multiple disabilities. Includes blank activity forms and an example task analysis data form. Cost: $7.50. Available from the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, Business Office, 1100 West 45th Street, Austin, Texas 78756-3494. Phone: (512) 206-9427 or (512) 206-9215. Publisher's web site:


Integrating Communication Skills into Functional Routines & Activities --Stremel, Kathleen. Hattiesburg, MS: University of Southern Mississippi. (1998) This training module on integrating communication skills into functional routines and activities is from the Mississippi Early Education Program for Children with Multiple Disabilities, a program designed to train Individuals with Disabilities Act Part H service coordinators and service providers to use family centered strategies. The objectives of the training are to teach practitioners to: 1) gain knowledge of the different forms and functions of communication; 2) gain skills in developing a communication "map" for an individual learner; 3) gain knowledge to analyze a learner's physical and social environment; 4) gain skills in selecting interactive activities across domains for initial integration of communication skills; 5) gain skills in developing a total task analysis with frequent opportunities for receptive and expressive communication skills; and 6) gain knowledge in determining individual learner needs to determine interactor competencies:. Included in the module are a pretest and a posttest, activities to illustrate concepts, a communication map, a form to chart levels of family involvement, a form for ecological analysis, and a sample routine for undressing, bathing, and dressing. Transparencies are provided.


Interaction Training at Texas School for the Blind & Visually Impaired --Axelrod, Craig; Conline, Kim; Smith, Tish. Austin, TX: Texas Deafblind Project. 2005 Texas Symposium on Deafblindness. (2005) The paper contains: a comparison of typical social development of an infant to the development of child who is deafblind; summary of recent research about interactions with students who are deafblind; statements about relationships, interactions and routines; identifies components of the interactive context with charts; a case study; analysis of interaction problems and possibilities and references.


Making a Difference: Routines for Severely Multiply Impaired Students --Smith, Millie. 2001 Symposium on Deafblindness: Communities & Connections. (2001) This is the handout from the presentation on routines, at the 2001 Symposium on Deafblindness. Provides information on developing and planning routines in the classrooms. Examples, broken down into steps are provided.


Reach Out and Teach: Helping Your Child Who Is Visually Impaired Learn and Grow --Ferrell, Kay Alicyn. New York: AFB Press. (2011) A guide for parents and teachers to learn how to promote the development of young children with visual and multiple impairments. It covers the learning needs of young children who are visually impaired; skills to focus on at different ages in the areas of sensory development, communication, movement, manipulation, and comprehension; effective ways of using everyday activities and routines to teach skills and encourage learning; strategies for navigating early intervention services and the transition to elementary school successfully; behaviors to promote in children with visual impairments for success in preschool and kindergarten; and adaptations, assistive technology, and other tools that can help young children in the classroom. Publisher's web site:


What is Routine and Activity-Based Early Intervention? --Stremel, Kathleen. (1996) In this clipping, routine and activity-based early intervention is defined and rationale for its use is delineated. Strategies and steps for developing and implementing routine and activity-based early intervention are provided. These steps include determination of: behavior, environmental features, routine or activity; major skills required; and teaching strategies utilizing generic interactor behaviors. Strategies used by early interventionists and families during any interaction are suggested. The embedding of critical skills and rating of teaching behaviors are discussed. Appended: a chart delineating generic interactive teaching behaviors for feeding/eating activities used for each of three children with different impairments and a worksheet to rate interactor/child skills across routines. A version condensed by Jennifer Quick as a Mississippi Services for Individuals who are Deaf-blind Focus Flyer (Number 9 & 10, October 1996 - February 1997) is attached.  

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