Outreach and Training on Interveners Bibliography

by DB-LINK on May 1, 2012
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This is a partial list of materials on this topic available from the DB-LINK Catalog Database.  If you have additional questions, please contact us via email:

Updated 6/2012


Beth Kennedy Explains the Intervener Model in Michigan --Kennedy, Beth. PERKINS EDUCATOR SERIES, ASK THE EXPERT, published online December 2011. (2011) Each month, Perkins Training and Educational Resources Program (TERP) releases the Educator Series, an e-newsletter that offers advice, activities, curriculum, webcasts and other information for teachers of the visually impaired (TVIs). Recurring columns include Cindy's Corner, Ask the Expert and About the Authors, which offers an inside look into the latest Perkins Publications and their authors. In this column Beth Kennedy, M.Ed., the Director of Deafblind Central, in Michigan, describes how she has facilitated the development of intervener training programs in her state.


Competencies for Paraprofessionals Working With Learners Who Are Deafblind in Early Intervention and Educational Settings --Riggio, Marianne; McLetchie, Barbara A.B. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind. (2001) These competencies address the knowledge and skills that a paraprofessional must have in order to assist in implementing quality programs and to enhance the quality of life for learners who are deafblind. The term paraprofessional is used to describe anyone who helps a teacher carry out the early intervention or educational program for a child who is deafblind (eg, intervenors, interpreters-tutors, paraeducators, assistants, and teachers aides). The competencies are the result of a collaborative process involving families, university personnel trainers, teachers, therapists, parents, paraprofessionals, practitioners, and administrators of state deafblind projects in the U.S. Available from Public Relations and Publications Department, Perkins School for the Blind, 175 N. Beacon St., Watertown MA 02472. Phone: 617-972-7328. Fax: 617-972-7334. Publisher's web site:


Competencies for Training Interveners to Work with Children/Students with Deafblindness Validation Survey --NTAC and SKI-HI Institute. National Technical Assistance Consortium for Children and Young Adults who are Deaf-Blind (NTAC) (2004) This is a copy of the validation survey used to determine the appropriateness of each competency listed for interveners working one-to-one with students who are deafblind.


Deafblindness and the Intervener --HOPE Inc., Home and Family Oriented Program Essentials. Logan, UT: Utah State University. (1998) This videotape discusses the effective use of interveners with children and youth who are deafblind. Deafblindness is described, along with the impact of combined vision and hearing loss on learning and interaction with the world. Interveners are shown working with individuals who are deafblind in home, school, and community settings. Interviews are presented which give perspectives from parents, teachers, educational administrators, and interveners themselves. Closed captioned. Available from HOPE, Inc., 1856 North 1200 East, North Logan, UT 84341; phone/fax: (435) 245-2888; e-mail: Publisher's web site:


Deafblindness and the Role of the Intervener --SKI-HI Institute. Logan, UT: SKI-HI Institute, Utah State University. (2010) This packet contains the following materials: a CD-ROM containing a PowerPoint presentation called "Deafblindness and the Role of the Intervener in Educational Settings"; a hard copy of the same PowerPoint presentation; a DVD called "Deafblindness and the Intervener"; an article, previously published in Deaf-Blind Perspectives, called "Selecting an Intervener for a Student Who Is Deafblind"; a copy of "Competencies for Training Interveners to Work with Children and Students with Deafblindness"; a copy of "The Intervener in Early Intervention and Educational Settings for Children and Youth with Deafblindness," previously published by NTAC; a copy of "Specialization Knowledge and Skill Set for Paraeducators Who Are Interveners for Individuals With Deaf-Blindness; a booklet called "Interveners in the Classroom: Guidelines for Teams Working With Students Who Are Deafblind"; and a fact sheet called "Educational Interveners for Children Who Are Deafblind." Availalbe for $30.00 from Ski-Hi. Contact Fran Payne 435/797-5591


Educational Interveners for Children Who are Deafblind --SKI-HI Institute. Logan, UT: SKI-HI Institute, Utah State University. (2010) This 1-page fact sheet provides succinct overviews on deaf-blindness, the educational impact of deaf-blindness, effective intervention for children who are deaf-blind, the role of the intervener in providing effective intervention, and the intervener and IDEA.


Effectiveness of an Intervener Model of Services for Young Deaf-Blind Children --Watkins, Susan; Clark, Thomas; Strong, Carol; Barringer, Donald. AMERICAN ANNALS OF THE DEAF, vol. 139, no. 4, 1994, pp. 404-409. (1994) Project Validation of the Intervener Program (VIP) studied and documented the effectiveness of the Intervener Service Model which provides the services of a paraprofessional (intervener) to families of young children who are deaf-blind. The intervener provides auditory, visual, and tactile stimulation for the child and helps the child develop interactive behaviors instead of isolated, defensive, or self-stimulatory behaviors. The intervener also enables the parents to obtain much needed respite. Project VIP obtained abundant quantitative and qualitative data on the effectiveness of the Intervener Service Model. The data strongly support the need for Intervener Services for young children who are deaf-blind and their families.


Ensuring Access to Highly Qualified Interveners and Teachers: Establishing Intervener and Teacher Specialized Professional Associations in Council for Exceptional Children --Zambone, Alana M.; Alsop, Linda. DVIQ, Spring 2009, pp.44-47. (2009) This brief article describes the process and current status of establishing national competencies and a national credential for deafblind interveners and teachers serving children and youth with deafblindness. Available on the web:


A Guide to Planning and Support for Individuals Who Are Deafblind --McInnes, John M. (Ed.) Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (1999) This book focuses on individuals who were born deaf-blind (congenitally deaf-blind) or who acquired the disability early in life (early adventitiously deaf-blind). Topics covered include: identifying deaf-blind individuals; intervention and the roles of intervenors; communication; cognitive development; social and emotional development; sexuality; family issues; planning and support for preschool infants, school-aged children, and adults; development of support organizations; advocacy; physical therapy (physiotherapy); and training for intervenors, teachers, and consultants. Available from: University of Toronto Press, Inc., (800) 565-9523, (416) 667-7832 (fax), 5201 Dufferin Street, North York, Ontario. Email: Publisher's web site:


IEP Quality Indicators for Students with Deafblindness --Texas Deafblind Outreach. Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired. (2009) This document is designed to help educational teams develop appropriate individualized education programs (IEPs) for students with deafblindness. It contains ten content areas, a short explanation of why each area is significant for students who are deafblind, and indicator statements. The presence of indicators demonstrate a well-designed IEP in areas related specifically to the needs of children with deafblindness. Indicators not present may indicate a training need for the team. The content areas included are etiology, access to information, social issues, communication, calendar system, behavior, orientation and mobility, related and supplemental services, transition planning, and a teaming process plan. This is a revised edition of a document originally published in 2009. This updated version includes teaming process plan indicators and new indicators highlighting considerations for an intervener and a teacher of the deafblind. Publisher's web site:


Intervener Competencies Training Program in Virginia --Durando, Julie; Campano, Mark. DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, vol.18, #1, Fall 2010, pp. 7-9. (2010) Available on the web:


The Intervener in Early Intervention and Educational Settings for Children and Youth With Deafblindness --Alsop, Linda; Blaha, Robbie; Kloos, Eric. Monmouth, OR: The National Technical Assistance Consortium for Children and Young Adults Who Are Deaf-Blind. NTAC BRIEFING PAPER. (2000) This briefing paper provides information about interveners and their role with individuals who are deafblind. It describes the work of interveners in early intervention and educational settings provided under the Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) and Individualized Education Program (IEP) for children and youth who are deaf-blind, birth through 21 years of age. A discussion of issues, concepts, and terminology associated with intervenors and the role they play is provided to increase awareness and understanding about how their services provide a credible service delivery option for children and youth who are deafblind. Available on the web or by contacting DB-LINK. Phone: 800-43-9376. TTY: 800-854-7013. E-mail: Available on the web:


Interveners for Students with Deafblindness in Texas --Texas Deaf-Blind Outreach. TEXAS DEAF-BLIND OUTREACH, 1999 pp. 1-20. (1999) A packet of information describing a model of individual support to provide access to education for students who are deafblind. Describes the role of the intervenor and suggestions for qualifications. Contains information on assessment, unique educational needs and strategies for students with deafblindness, adaptive and assistive devices, communication and access to information. Reviews who should have an intervenor, how an intervenor differs from other support staff and provides a sample job description. Publisher's web site:


Interveners: One Key to Success --Prouty, Sally; Prouty, Mike. DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, vol. 17, #1, Fall 2009, pp.1-4. (2009) The authors of the article are parents of a 28 year old son, Andy who is deaf-blind as a result of CHARGE Syndrome. They discuss the importance of having an intervener for a child with deaf-blindness for a variety of reasons: to gain social skills and to gain access to the world and communication, and to increase independence. Looking back over the past three decades, they express how important the influence of interveners on their son and themselves has been. Available on the web:


Interveners - What is Currently Happening? : Panel Discussion for PDM Project Directs Meeting, Washington, DC, January 2002. (2002) A series of handouts from the panel discussion at the January 2002 Project Directors Meeting.


Intervenor, Teacher, and Consultant Training --McInnes, John M. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. A Guide to Planning and Support for Individuals Who Are Deafblind, John McInnes, (Ed.) (1999) Deafblindness is a unique disability and therefore requires individuals with a specific set of identifiable skills and a unique set of knowledge to work with these individuals. This chapter addresses the specifics required of individuals identified as Intervenors, teachers and consultants.


Intervention --McInnes, John M. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. A Guide to Planning and Support for Individuals Who Are Deafblind, John McInnes, (Ed.) (1999) This chapter describes the process of intervention for individuals with congenital or early adventitious deaf-blindness. It includes a discussion of varying definitions of deaf-blindness, underlying philosophy, and approach. Includes a number of examples involving individuals of different ages and in a variety of settings.


North Carolina Deaf-Blind Associates Intervenor Final Report --Jones, Llewellyn. (1998) This final report discusses intervention strategies that are being used in four different locations in the U.S. and Canada. It provides detailed information regarding site visits to each of the four locations and programs and services provided in Utah, Ontario, Canada, Kentucky and Seattle, Washington. It discusses the need for programs in the U.S. to provide intervenor services from birth to death, rather than through high school level. It reviews the role of the intervenor, and what an intervenor does and does not provide. It gives facts about the Deaf-Blind Service Center in Seattle, Washington and how it came into existence and continues its funding sources. It advocates for training programs for intervenors in the U.S. and makes recommendations for who to contact if interested.


North Carolina Deaf-Blind Associates Intervenor Final Report --Jones, Llewellyn. (2003) This is an updated report on the study of the use of Intervenor programs among the 50 states. Describes the SKI-HI Institute at Utah State University, the Provincial Outreach Program for students with deaf-blind in British Columbia, the Deaf-Blind Service Center and Lighthouse for the Blind in Seattle, Puget Sound Residential Services in Renton, WA, Daybreak Family Homes in Seattle, McInnes Homes and the W. Ross Macdonald School of Brantford, Ontario, the Independent Living Residences for the deafblind in Ontario, Rotary Chesire Apartments in Willowdale, Ontario, the Interferon Program at George Brown College, Ontario, the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, Deaf-Blind Services, the Kentucky Deaf-Blind Project out of Louisville, and the North Carolina Deaf-Blind Associates.


Oregon Deafblind Project Intervener Training Program --Carnes, Sylvia; Barnard, Shawn. Monmouth, OR: DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, vol. 10, #3, Spring 2003, pp. 1-3. (2003) This article describes Oregon's Deafblind Project Intervener Training Program, which is in its pilot phase. Describes the Regional Service delivery program including the training offered to teachers of deafblind students. The program focuses on utilizing preexisting education teams, with three teacher/intervener teams currently participating. Describes the nine modules involved in the program including three that take place off-site from the schools. Describes follow-up activities and future plans for the program. Available on the web:


Personnel to Support the Education of Children and Youth with Deafblindness --Markowitz, Joy. Project FORUM. FORUM, April 2001, pp. 1-6. (2001) This article is a summary of survey data collected from 42 state education agencies (SEAs) on the topic of personnel to support the education of children and youth with deafblindness. A variety of subjects are covered including state and regional consultants, the use of paraeducators, state regulations and guidelines, and the involvement of deaf-blind projects in other state personnel initiatives. Survey information is summarized in both narrative and state by state formats. Available on the web:


Primary Competencies for Interveners in Texas : With Accompanying Self-Assessment Form --Texas Deaf-Blind Outreach. Austin: TEXAS DEAF-BLIND OUTREACH, August 2001, pp. 1-11. (2001) This is a group of documents designed to help educational teams in Texas plan training for an intervener working in the school setting with a student who is deafblind. They are companion documents to "Interveners for Students with Deafblindness in Texas", also prepared by Texas Deaf-Blind Outreach. Describes primary competencies that are indicative of the knowledge and skills necessary for a paraprofessional to work effectively as an intervener. The interveners knowledge of each item is judged only by self-report or evaluation specifically designed for a given training activity. The self-assessment form for interveners is included at the end along with a bibliography for further reference on this subject. Available from Texas Deaf-Blind Outreach, Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, 1100 W. 45th Street, Austin, Texas 78756, PH: (512) 206-9103, TTY: (512) 206-9188, FAX: (512) 206-9320 Available on the web:


Recommendations on the Training of Interveners for Students who are Deafblind --Alsop, Linda; Durkel, Jim; Killoran, John; Prouty, Sally; Robinson, Cindi. (2004) This document outlines training practices and competencies recommended for intervener training. The document addresses many of the issues identified by the Intervenor Task Force and later the Community of Practice Focusing on Interveners and Paraprofessionals. It includes a common understanding of the definition and role of an intevener, a list of recommended competencies, levels of learning for staff development and training, recommended training practices and a checklist of considerations for developing an intervener training system. Available on the web:


Specialization Knowledge and Skill Set for Paraeducators Who Are Interveners for Individuals with Deaf-Blindness Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. What Every Special Educator Must Know: Ethics, Standards and Guidelines, 6th ed. (2009) These are the same intervener competencies described in a previously published document called "Competencies for Training Interveners to Work with Children and Students with Deafblindness," but have been adapted into the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) format to establish an Intervener Specialized Professional Association of SPA. They serve as standards for university and college intervener training programs. The set includes both the competencies needed by interveners and the common core competencies needed by all special education paraeducators.


Teaching a Contact Profession Online: Development of Training Modules for Services Students with Deaf-Blindness --Engleman, Mellisa Darrow, Ed.D.; Zambone, Alana M. Ph.D. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare and Higher Education, 2007, pp. 1515-1520. (2007) The presenters were commissioned to develop online training for teacher assistants (paraprofessionals) across North Carolina who serve students with deafblindness. A universal design for learning approach was applied, and multi-sensory technology solutions were explored. The unique challenges of the trainee population characteristics, the physically interactive and individualized nature of the content and the available training technologies guided the design of the study. The training module development and delivery and the ongoing results of the study were discussed. Continuing questions resulting from this study were posed.


Understanding Deafblindness: Issues, Perspectives, and Strategies --Alsop, Linda, M.Ed. (Ed.) Logan, UT: SKI-HI Institute, Utah State University. (2002) A comprehensive 2-volume curriculum for parents, interveners, and service providers working with children and young adults who are deaf-blind. Aspects of deaf-blind programming covered include communication, concept development, vision, hearing, touch, sensory integration, intervention, family issues, physical education, additional disabilities, orientation and mobility, community support, and evaluation. Individual chapters were written by professionals with expertise in their respective subject areas. Available from Hope Publishing, Inc. Phone/Fax: 435-245-2888 .E-mail: Cost: $175.00.


Update: Educational Interveners in Texas --Blaha, Robbie. SEE/HEAR, vol. 7, #4, Fall 2002, pp. 18-21. (2002) This article provides an update on educational intervenors in Texas. Describes the efforts of the Texas Deafblind Project in supporting and expanding the services of an intervenor. Describes how to identify the training needs of intervenors, what training is available, and where intervenors are being used. A corresponding article describes how an intervenor can help bridge the social gap between deafblind children and other children in their classroom. Available in Spanish. Available on the web:


Use of Interveners --Rodriguez-Gil, Gloria. California Deaf-Blind Services. RESOURCES, vol. 10, #12, Winter 2002, pp. 7-9. (2002) This fact sheet describes the use of intervenors. It first defines what an intervenor is, and the importance of an intervenor for a child who is deaf-blind. The roles and responsibilities of an intervenor are provided as well as work attitudes expected. Available in Spanish. Available on the web:


Utah Enhances Services for Children Who Are Deaf-Blind --Henderson, Paddi; Killoran, John. DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, vol. 3, no 1, Fall 1995, pp. 3-6. (1995) The Utah legislature recently passed legislation providing funds for intervener services for children who are deaf-blind and for the development of a task force to design a state plan to address the needs of all individuals, through age 21, who are deaf-blind. The bulk of this article is made up of interviews of Stephanie Carlson, parent of a child who is deaf-blind, and Dr. Stevan J. Kukic, representative of the Utah State Office of Education. The article concludes with the five objectives with supporting strategies that have been agreed upon by the task force which is developing the Utah State Plan for aiding those young people through age 21 who are deaf-blind. Available on the web:


Validation of the Intervener Method of Providing Direct Services to Deaf Blind Children in the Home Setting: Final Report --SKI*HI Institute. Logan, UT: Utah State University. Validated Practices - Children with Deaf-Blindness. (1993) This report documents the activities and outcomes of a 3-year Office of Special Education Programs project on the intervener service model practiced in the state of Utah. The report is in three main sections. Section 1 is a description of the model including an overview, a description of program demographics and a discussion of various program operation factors. Section 2 describes various aspects of the VIP (Validation of the Intervener Program) including a chronology of project activities during the three years. Section 3 contains specific reports on the five studies done for Project VIP.  

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