Tactile Strategies Bibliography

by DB-LINK on May 1, 2009
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This is a partial list of materials on this topic available from the NCDBCatalog Database.  If you have additional questions, please contact us via email:



2001 Symposium on Deafblindness: Communities and Connections --Peterson, Deanna; Conlin, Kim; LaWare, Fran. Issues in Tactile Instruction and Programming for a Student with Deafblindness. (2001) This is a group of handouts used at the 2001 Symposium on Deafblindness. The subject of the presentation is issues in tactile instruction and programming for students with deafblindness. It has information on functional vision assessments, and learning media assessments along with sample reports.


Communication and Congenital Deafblindness: II. Contact and Social Interaction --Janssen, Marleen; Rodbroe, Inger. Denmark, The Danish Resource Centre on Congenital Deafblindness (VCDBF) and Viataal, The Netherlands. (2007) This is the second of four booklets on congenital deaf-blindness and communication. This booklet describes interactions and early communication with deafblind people, the promotion of social relationships, and the extension of early one-to-one social relationships to external objects and events. It includes in-depth information on early interactions, which have been described as "conversations with bodies," and is a process by which people can understand each other without formal language using communication that consists of emotional bodily expressions, tactile cues, muscles tension, postures, natural gestures, and sounds. This booklet also covers bodily emotional traces, a theory that addresses the impact of highly emotional experiences on communication and learning. To order, contact


Delivering Effective Instruction to Students with Deaf-Blindness and/or Other Severe Disabilities --Bennett, Kay; Griffin, Harold; Powers, Joan; Williford, Kathy; Young, Cliff. North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. (1995) This is a guide to identify, place, and instruct children with severe disabilities, including deaf-blindness. Identification and placement information focuses on locating and referring children in need of special education services, the role of committees and staff members, the individualized education program, entrance and placement criteria, inclusive education, curriculum content, additional services available to the child, building standards, and instructional materials. Instructional suggestions focus on: positions for children with poor physical/muscle control, communication with students with multisensory disabilities, visual and auditory perception training, tactile perception training, motor training, cognitive and conceptual skills training, behavior management, recreational activities, and orientation and mobility training. Appendices include: a chart detailing 20 classroom assessment instruments, a list of 105 exemplary curricula for severely/profoundly mentally disabled persons, a list of 27 publishers of curricular and learning materials, a list of 7 journals and 28 books on curricula, and other resources.


Electroencephalographic Study of Helen Keller --Still, William C. ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY, vol. 57, 1947, pp.629-632. (1947) At age 64, Helen Keller was examined with an electroencephalogram. In the resting stage, the electroencephalogram of Helen Keller showed better organized alpha activity in the frontal and motor leads. Consistently, throughout the record, the frontal, and especially the motor, leads showed an amplitude greater than that observed in the occipital leads. Hyperventilation, which increased the alpha activity in the occipital leads, did not increase the amplitude of the potentials from the occipital areas to such an extent that they equaled in amplitude the potentials recorded from the motor areas. Since all of Helen Keller's learning and experience is through her sense of touch or tactile discrimination, with particular emphasis on the corresponding cortical areas, it is suggested that the amplitudinal differences recorded in the electroencephalogram may be correlated with differences in the functional organization of the cerebral cortex.


EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN, vol. 36, #2, Nov/Dec 2003, pp56-60. (2003) Students who are blind and have severe disabilities need instructional materials that provide relevant tactile information. This article describes specific tactile strategies to support the instruction of students who have severe and multiple disabilities and who do not learn visually. It addresses issues for teachers to consider to help them become aware of how they can best interact with students through touch and describes tactile modeling, tactile mutual attention, characteristics of tactile learning, how to use tactile information to represent specific concepts, the importance of considering a student's degree of sensitivity to touch, and the need for a team approach to teaching.


Learning Through Touch: Supporting Children With Visual Impairment and Additional Difficulties --McLinden, Mike; McCall, Steve. London: David Fulton Publishers. (2002) Written to assist teachers and other professionals who support children with visual impairment and additional disabilities, this book examines the role of touch in teaching and learning. It includes background information about the anatomy, physiology, and functions of touch and the early development of sensory and cognitive abilities. It considers how to identify and reduce barriers to independent learning through touch by addressing the impact of visual impairment on early haptic development, the impact of additional disabilities on learning though touch, principles underpinning the assessment of touch, interpersonal communication through touch, and tactile symbols and early literacy. It also includes an excellent glossary of terms used in this subject area.


National Curriculum: An Introduction to Working and Socializing with People Who Are Deaf-Blind --National Interpreter Education Project: Northwestern Connecticut Community College. San Diego: Dawn Sign Press. (2001) This is an abridged version of the National Curriculum For Training Interpreters Working with People Who Are Deaf-Blind. This is a three module program (total of 48 hours) that provides materials, sessions and activities to be used for in-service training and workshops where people want to learn more about communicating with and understanding people who are Deaf-Blind. It also includes the syllabus for a four credit college course. The curriculum is presented in several alternate formats including regular print, large print, video tapes, and on diskette in ASCII. This curriculum is the introductory level and is designed for beginners who have intermediate to advanced sign language skills and are interested in learning about communicating with person who are Deaf-Blind. It enhances participants' familiarity with the basics, such as various etiologies represented in the deaf-blind community, tactile communication, interpreting visual information, comfort with touch, and sighted guide techniques. The full National Curriculum is available from the National Clearinghouse of Rehabilitation Training Materials and can be downloaded as a complete .pdf file. Choose Digital Library option from the website. Publisher's web site:


One is Fun: Guidelines for Better Braille Literacy --Troughton, Marjorie. Brantford, Ontario: Dialatype. (1992) This guide provides descriptions and comparisons between Grade One (alphabetic or uncontracted) Braille and Grade Two (contracted) Braille. The author focuses on how well students learn each of these methods. Chapters include descriptions of research projects, literacy activities for preschool years, learning to read and write in grade school, and how to learn Braille later in life. It also includes sections on Braille for low vision students, for people with learning disabilities, adult literacy programs, and technology. In addition, there is a beginner's guide to teaching alphabetic Braille, an alphabet card and an example of a tactile discrimination test.


Research on the Tadoma Method of Speech Communication --Reed, C. M.; Rabinowitz, W. M.; Durlach, N. I.; Braida, L. D.; Conway-Fithian, S.; Schultz, M. C. JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, vol. 77, #1, January 1985, pp. 247-257. (1985) In Tadoma, speech is received by placing a hand on the talker's face and monitoring actions associated with speech production. Our initial research has documented the speech perception, speech production, and linguistic abilities of deaf-blind individuals highly trained in Tadoma. This research has demonstrated that good speech reception can be achieved through the tactile sense: Performance is roughly equivalent to that of people with normal hearing listening in noise or babble with a signal-to-noise ratio in the range 0-6 dB. It appears that the principal cues employed are lip movement, jaw movement, oral airflow, and laryngeal vibration, and that the errors which occur are caused primarily by inadequate information on tongue position. Our current research includes (1) learning of Tadoma by normal subjects with simulated deafness and blindness, (2) augmenting Tadoma with a supplemental tactile display of tongue position, and (3) developing a synthetic Tadoma system in which signals recorded from a talker's face are used to drive an artificial face. This research is expected to increase our understanding of Tadoma and its relation to other tactile communication methods, show that performance obtained through Tadoma does not represent the ultimate limits of the tactile sense, and provide a research tool for studying transformations of Tadoma.


Successful Adaptations for Learning to Use Touch Effectively: Interacting with Children who are Deaf-Blind or Visually Impaired and have Additional Disabilities --Chen, Deborah; Downing, June; Minor, Lavada; Rodriguez-Gil, Gloria. Northridge: Department of Special Education, California State University, Northridge. (2005) This manual was created to help service providers and family members learn to interact through touch with children who need tactile information to support their learning, particularly children who do not clearly demonstrate understanding or use of symbolic communication. The contents of the manual reflect the activities of Project SALUTE, a model demonstration project funded by the U.S. Department of Education. The introduction to the manual includes a report of focus group findings and the results of research performed with four children. The bulk of the manual provides practical information on the following topics: the sense of touch, supporting interactions though touch, assessing tactile skills and planning interventions, tactile interaction strategies, making communication accessible, adaptations to manual signs, emergent literacy, and selecting tactile strategies and problem solving.


Tactile Learning Strategies: Interacting with Children Who Have Visual Impairments and Multiple Disabilities --Chen, Deborah; Downing, June. New York: AFB Press. Project SALUTE. (2006) Strategies and everyday activities for helping children who are visually impaired and have multiple disabilities to learn through touch are demonstrated using narration, interviews, and specific detailed examples of children and their families. Topics covered include: mutual tactile attention (following a child's lead without making any demands); tactile modeling (demonstrating an action); hand-under-hand guidance (showing a child by allowing him to feel another person's hand movements); hand-over-hand guidance (physical manipulation of a child's hands); touch cues (made by touching a child to let him know what is about to happen, provide info, and encourage interaction); object cues (objects or parts of objects that provide concrete cues to help a child anticipate and participate in a familiar activity); adapted sign (modifications of manual signs so they can be perceived tactilely), coactive sign (physical guidance of the child's hands to produce a sign); and tactile sign (produce signs under a child's hands). Video is produced by Project SALUTE. Available in video or DVD format (DB-LINK has one of each). English and Spanish versions are on the same videotape. In the DVD format, English and Spanish versions are on separate DVDs that come in the same case. Cost: $79.95 for the video; $99.95 for the DVD. Available from AFB Press. Phone: 800-232-3044. Publisher's web site:


Tactile Strategies for Children Who Have Visual Impairments and Multiple Disabilities: Promoting Communication and Learning Skills --Chen, Deborah; Downing, June E. New York: AFB Press. (2006) This book is designed to help service providers and family members learn to interact through touch with children who need tactile information to support their learning. The introduction includes a report of focus group findings and the results of research performed with four children during Project SALUTE, a model demonstration project funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Other chapter topics include: the sense of touch, supporting interactions though touch, assessing tactile skills and planning interventions, focusing on tactile strategies, considering multiple communication options, adapting manual signs to meet a child's needs, selecting appropriate tactile strategies, and encouraging emergent literacy. Cost: $39.95. Available from AFB Press. Phone: 800-232-3044. E-mail: There is a also companion video (or DVD) to this book called "Tactile Learning Strategies: Interacting with Children Who Have Visual Impairments and Multiple Disabilities." The contents of the book and video reflect the activities of Project SALUTE, and this book is very similar to a manual published by California State University, Northridge, called "Successful Adaptations for Learning to Use Touch Effectively: Interacting with Children Who Are Deaf-Blind or Visually Impaired and have Additional Disabilities" by Chen, et al. Publisher's web site:


Touching the Moon --McLinden, Mike. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, vol. 22, #2, June 1995, pp. 64-69. (1995) The Progressive Tactile Timetable was developed to enable pupils with visual impairments and severe learning difficulties to progress from the use of concrete symbols (objects of reference) to the abstract tactile Moon code (a simplified raised line version of the Roman print alphabet). A case study illustrates its application with an adolescent with Down syndrome and deteriorating vision.


Western Regional Intervention Summer Conference: An Intervener's View --Mylander, Kristen. VIBRATIONS, NEWSLETTER OF COLORADO SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WHO ARE DEAFBLIND, Fall 2002, pp. 15-16. (2002) This article provides a summary of the Western Regional Early Intervention Summer conference. It describes guidelines laid out by the keynote speaker on the balance of parents and professionals. Provides information on using portfolios to facilitate a smooth transition, and learning with homemade toys. Outlines two sessions by Barbara Miles on using touch to portray information and the value of communication.

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