Personnel Training Bibliography

by DB-LINK on May 1, 2009
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This is a partial list of materials on this topic available from the NCDB Catalog Database.  If you have additional questions, please contact us via email:

Updated 10/09


Addressing the paraprofessional dilemma in an inclusive school: A program description --Giangreco, M.F.; Smith, C.S; Pinckney, E. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 2006, 31 (3), 215-229. (2006) Many schools have increased their use of paraprofessionals as a primary mechanism to include more students with various disabilities in general education classes. Although intended to be supportive, service delivery that relies extensively on paraprofessionals has resulted in a host of challenges for public schools and questionable services for students with disabilities. This article offers an in-depth description of one elementary school over a 3-year period. It chronicles the school's use of an action planning tool to pursue alternatives to overreliance on paraprofessionals as well as service delivery and financial changes that occurred as a result of the school's actions. The impact of the actions the school implemented and intended next steps offer authentic perspectives for schools facing similar challenges as they seek to extend inclusive schooling opportunities. Available on the web:


Competencies for Paraprofessionals Working With Learners Who Are Deafblind in Early Intervention and Educational Settings --Riggio, Marianne; McLetchie, Barbara A.B. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind. (2001)These competencies address the knowledge and skills that a paraprofessional must have in order to assist in implementing quality programs and to enhance the quality of life for learners who are deafblind. The term paraprofessional is used to describe anyone who helps a teacher carry out the early intervention or educational program for a child who is deafblind (eg, intervenors, interpreters-tutors, paraeducators, assistants, and teachers aides). The competencies are the result of a collaborative process involving families, university personnel trainers, teachers, therapists, parents, paraprofessionals, practitioners, and administrators of state deafblind projects in the U.S. Available from Public Relations and Publications Department, Perkins School for the Blind, 175 N. Beacon St., Watertown MA 02472. Phone: 617-972-7328. Fax: 617-972-7334. Publisher's web site:


Creative Approaches to Developing Partnerships with Universities for Teacher Training --Lolli, Dennis. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia. (2007)This is the text of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. The presentation describes the range of what university programs can encompass, to prepare teachers for learners who are deafblind or blind with additional disabilities, and focuses on models that some countries have found to be successful. The presentation references what has been done in countries like Bulgaria, Russia among others as well as what is currently being planned for Estonia.


Guide to Schoolwide Planning for Paraeducator Supports --Giangreco, Michael F.; Edelman, Susan W.; Broer, Stephen M. U.S. Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) (2001) This guide takes teams of educational professionals through the steps necessary to plan for paraprofessional supports in the classroom. Provides planning steps suggested in forming a team, assessing their own role in relation to the six paraeducator topics, prioritizing and selecting specific topics that reflect areas of need within the school, identifying statewide resources to assist the team in achieving their goals, and implementing and evaluating the teams's plans. Provides worksheet for working through each of the steps. Available on the web:


IDEA Partnerships: Paraprofessional Initiative Council for Exceptional Children. Report to the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) (2001) This report to the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, provides recommendations for defining the roles of paraprofessionals/assistants in the classrooms and the training needed for these positions. A work group consisting of staff from the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals (NRCP), National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE), American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), and the IDEA partnerships, convened to develop the report of recommendations. Additional copies available from: Council for Exceptional Children, 1110 North Glebe Road, Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22201-5704. (877) 232-4332, TTY: (866) 915-5000, FAX: (703) 264-1637,


Intervenor Training --Olson, Joyce. DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, vol. 12, #1, Fall 2004, pp.1-5. (2004) Describes the underlying philosophy and structure of the intervenor training program at the British Columbia Provincial Outreach Program for Students with Deafblindness. Includes information about using simulations to promote an understanding of deafblindness, the unique role of the intervenor, key components of intervention (anticipation, motivation, communication, confirmation), the use of memory hooks to help students learning to be intervenors remember the goals and components of intervention, and practical aspects of training. Available on the web:


Knowledge and Skills for Teachers Supervising the Work of Paraprofessionals --Wallace, Teri; Shin, Jongho; Bartholomay, Tom; Stahl, Barbara J. THE COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN, vol. 67, #4, Summer 2001, pp. 520-533. (2001)This study identified competencies needed by teachers to supervise or direct the work of paraprofessionals in educational settings. Respondents completed a survey of prospective competencies for teachers who supervise paraprofessionals and asked about the extent to which they observed teachers' demonstration of these competencies. Results suggest that participants considered the competencies very important, but that they did not observe these same competencies as frequently as their perceived importance. The article describes the study, its methods, results, conclusions and implications for practice.


Model for Paraprofessional Training in Deafblindness --Alsop, Linda. Monmouth: DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, Spring 2006, Volume 13 Issue 3, p. 8. (2006) This is a brief announcement of a project funded by the U.S Department of Education for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education. It is a model of distance education to train paraprofessionals who work with children who are deafblind. Available on the web:


MSc Communication and Congenital Deafblindness --Janssen, Marleen, Dr. DBI REVIEW, #39, Janurary-June 2007, p. 38. (2007)The University of Groningen, the Netherlands, Masters Programme, Educational Sciences Section, Communication and Congenital Deafblindness is a unique programme which provides students with the opportunity to acquire theoretical and methodological skills enabling them to analyse communication in complex situations. The methods used will enable them to apply this knowledge in the context of research and intervention. This course aims to provide deafblind persons and hearing sighted persons with tools that help them in their mutual efforts to understand each other.


National Center for Leadership in Visual Impairment (NCLVI) --Sweet-Bernard, Shawn. DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, Fall 2007, Vol. 15, Issue 1, pp.9-10. (2007) This article describes the mission of the National Center for Leadership in Visual Impairment (NCLVI) to increase, through specialized doctoral training, the number of quality leadership personnel competent in the areas of research, public policy, advocacy, administration, and higher education, to improve services for individuals with visual impairments from birth through age 21. Available on the web:


National Plan for Training Personnel to Serve Children with Blindness and Low Vision --Mason, Christine; Davidson, Roseanna; McNerney, Colleen. --The Council for Exceptional Children National Plan for Training Personnel to Serve Children with Blindness and Low Vision The Association for the Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired, Division 17 The American Foundation for the Blind. (2000)The National Plan for Training Personnel to Serve children with Blindness and Low Vision (NPTP) is a two-year project funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. The plan highlights strategies to provide services to schools and educational settings serving children who are blind, deafblind, or have low vision. The project completed a national needs assessment focused on the supply of adequately trained professionals, and compiled a plan for the field and the Department of Education outlining strategies to improve the situation. It includes a description of the background of the project, a summary of needs assessment data, a problem statement, a vision statement and the completed National Plan. It also describes the following strategies for achieving the plan's vision: 1) collaboration, 2) the role of government and funding, 3) professional preparation, and 4) leadership and research.


NCDB’s Personnel Preparation Consortium --Leslie, Gail. DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, vol. 16, #2, Fall 2008, pp.9-11. (2008) With a commitment to coming together twice a year, the Personnel Preparation Consortium has become an effective workforce addressing issues and benefitting practitioners, educators, and technical assistance providers across the country. Available on the web:


New Master's Degree Program in Severe Disabilities with an Emphasis on Dual Sensory Impairment in Mississippi --Holly, Cassondra. Monmouth: DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, Spring 2006, Volume 13 Issue 3, p. 5-6. (2006) This article describes the development of a master's degree program in severe disabiliities with an emphasis on dual sensory impairment. The program aims to train up to 60 people over a 5 year period to fulfill an unmet need in the state of Mississippi. Funding for this program is provided through a grant awarded by the U.S Department of Education. Available on the web:


Online Professional Development for Early Interventionists: Learning a Systematic Approach to Promote Caregiver Interactions With Infants Who Have Multiple Disabilities --Chen, Deborah; Klein, Diane; Minor, Lavada. INFANTS AND YOUNG CHILDREN, vol. 21, #2, pp. 120-133. (2008)This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of an online course designed to train early interventionists to implement strategies with caregivers (parents) that promote interactions with infants who have multiple disabilities. The focus was on supporting caregivers to observe and understand their infants' states and cues, and to develop responsive interaction strategies that encourage their infants' development of intentional communicative behavior. Because infants with multiple disabilities represent a low-incidence and challenging population, there is a significant need for efficient inservice methods, such as online instruction. A total of 86 early interventionists in California completed the online course successfully and used the strategies effectively with caregivers and their infants. An overview of the course content, structure, assignments, and online instruction is provided. A discussion of outcomes includes feedback from students on (a) their perception of changes in their own professional competencies based on pre- and posttest data, (b) their satisfaction with the overall course design, (c) challenges and benefits of online instruction, and (d) the impact of what they learned on their professional practice. Course effectiveness was also measured through informal analyses of online discussions, course assignments, and instructor reflections. Implications for future professional development efforts are identified.


Personnel Preparation and the National Agenda --Kelley, Pat; Ward, Marjorie E.; Griffin-Shirley, Nora. RE:VIEW, vol. 32, #3, Fall 2000, pp. 102-114. (2000)This article looks at the National Agenda for the Education of Children and Youth with Visual Impairments, including those with multiple disabilities, a national program aimed at achieving eight priority goals for improving the quality of educational services for children with visual impairments. This article specifically looks at the third goal of the program, personnel preparation, by surveying teachers who work with visually impaired children. Results provide information about the teachers, their positions, the likelihood of their continuing to work with visually impaired children and their experiences with distance education and other educational delivery systems.


Personnel to Support the Education of Children and Youth with Deafblindness --Markowitz, Joy. Project FORUM. FORUM, April 2001, pp. 1-6. (2001) This article is a summary of survey data collected from 42 state education agencies (SEAs) on the topic of personnel to support the education of children and youth with deafblindness. A variety of subjects are covered including state and regional consultants, the use of paraeducators, state regulations and guidelines, and the involvement of deaf-blind projects in other state personnel initiatives. Survey information is summarized in both narrative and state by state formats.


Quality Services for Children and Youth Who Are Deafblind --Harrington, Marjorie, Ph.D.; Pfohl, Emily, Ph.D. JADARA, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2006, pp. 17-23. (2006)Many deafblind students in the United States are not serviced appropriately in the educational system because there is a lack of qualified teachers available. New York State does not have certification for teaching deafblind students. The Canisius College teacher preparation program in conjunction with the New York State Technical Assistance Project Serving Children and Youth Who Are Deafblind (NYSTAP) task force is trying to alleviate some of this lack of knowledge by providing graduate students in the deaf education teacher preparation program with four workshops on deafblind issues. This paper describes the method used to introduce deafblind curriculum as a supplement to the established curriculum of the deaf education graduate teacher preparation program at Canisius College in Buffalo, New York.


Report on the International Course on Communication and Congenital Deafblindness --Nordic Staff Training Centre for Deafblind Services. Nordic Staff Training Centre for Deafblind Services. Communication Network Update Series, No. 8, 2007, 2-23. (2007) This is a report on an international course on communication and congenital deafblindness that was held at the Lithuanian Centre for the Blind in Vilnius in May 2000. The document has three parts. The first discusses the results of an analysis of videotapes that the participants brought with them. These tapes show the participant teachers interacting with a student who is deafblind. The second section is the text of a lecture by Jacques Souriau. The third section is the text of a lecture by Anne Nafstad and Inger Rodbroe.


Teacher Preparation for the Education of Students who are Deafblind: A Retrospective and Prospective View --Bruce, Susan M. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, Spring 2007, Vol. 14, Issue 2, 9-12. (2007) The author reexamines teacher preparation in the areas identified 15 years by Barbara McLetchie. They are: an ongoing need for federal funding, the expanding roles of teachers, the need for national standards, and the need for meaningful links to adult services. She also addresses additional current challenges. Available on the web:


Use of Multimedia Tools to Enhance Distance Education --Buckley, Wendy L. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia. (2007)This is text of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. This presentation describes the use of multimedia technology to give students the tools to stay connected with each other and with their instructors and mentors.


Using Action Plans to Support Communication Programming for Children Who Are Deafblind --Bruce, Susan M. RE: VIEW, vol. 39, #2, Summer 2007, pp. 71-83. (2007)The author describes the use of action plans to support 2 teachers' post-in-service implementation of communication strategies with 3 children who are deaf-blind. In the action plans, the teachers recorded changes in thinking and instructional practices under the 4 aspects of communication: form, function, content, and context. They also recorded their concerns about implementation and their requests for follow-up support. One teacher focused initially on forms of communication and later on context; the other teacher implemented practices across all 4 aspects, primarily because of the influence of regularly scheduled team meetings.


VIISA Project: A Model National In-Service Training Program for Infants and Young Children with Visual Impairments --Dennison, Elizabeth Morgan. JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & BLINDNESS, vol. 94, #11, November 2000, pp. 695-705. (2000)This article describes the results of the VIISA Outreach Project, a well-received in-service training model for personnel who work with infants and young children with visual impairments, which has been in existence since 1991 in 23 states. The process for obtaining a VIISA Outreach project in your state, if one doesn't already exist, is described. Class materials, topics and information on obtaining the training is included.


What Every Special Educator Must Know: The Standards for the Preparation and Certification of Special Education Teachers --The Council for Exceptional Children, CEC. Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children, CEC. (2000)This set of comprehensive standards and guidelines for the preparation and certification of special educators was prepared by the Council for Exceptional Children, an international professional association of special educators. This resource is divided into three sections. Section I includes the CEC's Code of Ethics and Standards for Professional Practice for Special Educators and provides general guidance for professional conduct. Section II is designed as a reference for states and provinces in determining certification requirements for entry into the profession. It presents the CEC's International Standards for Entry into Professional Practice and is coded by knowledge and skill item. Section III is designed for use by special education professional preparation programs and provides information on international standards for preparation. Section IV provides information on Knowledge and Skill Standards for Beginning Special Educators.


You Make the Difference: An Educator-Oriented Process for Supporting High Quality Interactions with Students Who are Deafblind [DVD] --Axelrod, Craig; Conlin, Kim; Smith, Tish. Austin: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired. (2008)The interaction training process presented in this DVD is designed to help educators learn how to improve the quality of their interactions with students who are deafblind, by changing their own interactive behaviors and by adapting the interactive context (for example, offering communicative aids in an orderly way, offering choices, and removing distracting stimuli). You Make the Difference emphasizes and addresses the following educator-oriented learning goals: understand the role of high quality interactions in early development; understand the challenges to high quality interactions with children who are deafblind; identify student-specific factors that impact interactions; recognize the components of interaction; analyze the interactions between adults and students who are deafblind; identify and implement intervention strategies that improve the quality of those interactions. Cost: $50.00. Available from the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired. Phone: 512-206-9427. Publisher's web site:


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