- Selected Topics
- What is Deaf-Blindness
- Definitions of Deaf-Blindness
- Causes of Deaf-Blindness
- National Child Count & Demographics
- Communication Overview
- Early Communication
- Prelinguistic Communication
- Object Communication
- Symbolic Communication
- Sign Language
- Accessing the General Curriculum
- Auditory Training
- Calendar Systems
- Concept Development
- Daily Living Skills
- Environmental Considerations
- Harmonious Interactions
- Lilli Nielsen and Active Learning
- Orientation & Mobility
- Play & Recreation
- Social Interactions
- Tactile Strategies
- Universal Design for Learning
- van Dijk Approach
- Identification & Referral
- Early Intervention
- Assessment Overview
- Assessment Tools and Instruments
- Alternate Assessment
- Program Planning
- IEP Development
- IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)
- Assistive Technology
- History of Deaf-Blind Education
- Self Determination
- Person Centered Planning
- Postsecondary Education
- Independent Living
- Customized Employment
- Sex Education
- Adult Services
- Intervener Services
- Support Service Provider
- Personnel Development & Training
- Interpreting for Deaf-Blind Individuals
- Interpreting for Deaf-Blind Individuals - Annotated Bibliography
- Training Resources
- Family Resources
- Personal Narratives - Family Stories
- Personal Narratives
- Art & Writing
- Cochlear Implants
- Functional Hearing
- Functional Vision
- Sensory Integration
- Central Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy
- CHARGE Syndrome Webcasts and Presentations
- CHARGE Syndrome
- Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS)
- Cortical Visual Impairment
- Retinal Degenerative Disease
- Usher Syndrome
- Applications of Technology
- Research to Practice
- Topical Overviews
- Practice Perspectives
- Tools For TA
- Information Packets
- Deaf-Blind Perspectives
- Webinar Recordings
- NCDB eNews
- Archived Webinars
Communication Materials Bibliography
This is a partial list of materials on this topic available from the NCDB Catalog Database. If you have additional questions, please contact us via email: email@example.com
Authentic Assessment Monmouth, OR: National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness, Teaching Research Institute, Western Oregon University. PRACTICE PERSPECTIVES, #6, June 2010. (2010) This publication describes an authentic approach to the assessment of communication and learning that emphasizes gathering information about children in their everyday environments during normal activities. It is adapted from a manual called "Assessing Communication and Learning in Young Children Who Are Deafblind or Who Have Multiple Disabilities." Topics include features of an authentic assessment (e.g., an assessment team, family involvement, informal observations, structured observations, appropriate use of assessment tools, evaluations by specialists) and problems with the use of standardized tests when evaluating children with deaf-blindness. This is the sixth in series of publications called Practice Perspectives, designed to increase the use of current information resources through the development of easily understandable products in accessible formats. For print copies, contact NCDB at 800-438-9376 (Voice), 800-854-7013 (TTY), or firstname.lastname@example.org. Available on the web: https://nationaldb.org/library/page/969 Publisher's web site:http://nationaldb.org.
Becoming Aware Through Touch --Rodriguez-Gill, Gloria, M.Ed. CALIFORNIA DEAF-BLIND SERVICES. RESOURCES, vol. 11, #2, Spring 2004, pp. 4-5. (2004) This article focuses on the sense of touch as a way to enhance communication and learning with children who are deafblind and have additional disabilities. Describes the importance of the sense of touch without disregarding the importance of using a multiple sensory approach. Describes how participants began using new tactile approaches with the children, and the changes in behavior and communication observed as a result. Available in Spanish. Available on the web: http://www.sfsu.edu/~cadbs/Spring04.pdf
Case Studies: Communication Possibilities --Majors, Martha M.; Stelzer, Sharon; Stremel, Kat. Miami Beach, FL: 7th International CHARGE Syndrome Conference, July 22nd - July 24th, 2005, Miami Beach, Florida. (2005) Copy of a PowerPoint presentation. In outline format reviews different forms of communication incorporated within total communication and most frequent combinations used for expressive language in case studies.
Co-creating Communication: Keynote speech from the Oslo Conference --Souriau, Jacques. Nordic Staff Training Centre for Deafblind Services. Communication Network Update Series, Oslo, No. 6, April 26-29, 2006, 3-11. (2006) This keynote speech describes the big discussion, concepts and paradigms, that is taking place among people concerned with deafblindness, and also among scholars, scientists and laymen. The way these groups think, and possibly disagree with each other, in the field of deafblindness, is dynamically determined by scientific findings and daily life conceptions that interact with their experience of congenital deafblindness. This paper focuses on three main topics: language, gestures and dialogue. The author reviews research related to language, sign language, gestures and communication partners as the basis for understanding language development in children who are congenitally deafblind. Available on the web: http://www.nordicwelfare.org/PageFiles/7063/CNUS06_web.pdf
Co-Creating Communication in Switzerland --Ehrlich, Henriette. DBL REVIEW, July-December 2008, pp.9-11. (2008) The staff of Tanne-a Swiss foundation for deafblind people plan a three day project to examine co-creating communication-communication development through social interaction. On day 1 is the presentation and refreshment of the theory, day 2 is the social interaction in daily practice and day 3 is the video analysis.
Communication and Congenital Deafblindness: I. Congenital Deafblindness and the Core Principles of Intervention --Rodbroe, Inger; Janssen, Marleen. St. Michielsgestel, The Netherlands: VCDBF/Viataal. (2006) This is the first of four booklets on congenital deaf-blindness and communication. This booklet describes the characteristic features of deaf-blindness and their implications for communication. Its purpose is to promote understanding of what it means to be deaf-blind in order to enlighten the communication partners of children and adults who are deaf-blind. It also provides information about the population of people who are deaf-blind and describes describes the theoretical framework being developed in Deafblind International's Communication Network. A DVD is included that illustrates the diversity of deaf-blind people. Available from Perkins Products (http://www.perkinselearning.org/publications). To shop offiline call 617-972-7308 or mail your request to Perkins Products, 175 North Beacon Street, Watertown, MA 02472. Publisher's web site: http://www.perkinselearning.org/publications
Communication and Congenital Deafblindness: II. Contact and Social Interaction --Janssen, Marleen; Rodbroe, Inger. Denmark, The Danish Resource Centre on Congenital Deafblindness (VCDBF) and Viataal, The Netherlands. (2007) This is the second of four booklets on congenital deaf-blindness and communication. This booklet describes interactions and early communication with deafblind people, the promotion of social relationships, and the extension of early one-to-one social relationships to external objects and events. It includes in-depth information on early interactions, which have been described as "conversations with bodies," and is a process by which people can understand each other without formal language using communication that consists of emotional bodily expressions, tactile cues, muscles tension, postures, natural gestures, and sounds. This booklet also covers bodily emotional traces, a theory that addresses the impact of highly emotional experiences on communication and learning. Available from Perkins Products (http://www.perkinselearning.org/publications). To shop offiline call 617-972-7308 or mail your request to Perkins Products, 175 North Beacon Street, Watertown, MA 02472. Publisher's web site: http://www.perkinselearning.org/publications.
Communication and Congenital Deafblindness: III. Meaning Making --Souriau, Jacques (Ed.); Rodbroe, Inger (Ed.); Janssen, Marleen (Ed.) Danish Resource Centre on Congenital Deafblindness (VCDBF), Denmark and Viataal, The Netherlands. (2008) This is the third of four booklets on congenital deaf-blindness and communication. The first chapter addresses how gestures emerge from bodily emotional experiences (body emotional traces [BETs]) in the world. The experiences that leave traces in the body and mind of a deaf-blind person often appear as bodily gestures referring to significant aspects of an event. The second chapter focuses on narratives that are essential for meaning making in all human beings and how to use them in intervention strategies. The third chapter describes two theories that clarify the process of meaning making--Katherine Nelson's model on mental event representation and a model from cognitive semiotics. The fourth chapter addresses negotiations that occur in dialogues between partners when meaning is co-created and shared. The last chapter addresses the exposure to cultural language and the specific challenges found in tactile communication. A DVD is included that illustrates essential concepts from the booklet. The cost is $50.00 for the set of 4 booklets. Available from Perkins Products (http://www.perkinselearning.org/publications). To shop offiline call 617-972-7308 or mail your request to Perkins Products, 175 North Beacon Street, Watertown, MA 02472. Publisher's web site: http://www.perkinselearning.org/publications.
Communication and Congenital Deafblindness: IV. Transition to the Cultural Language --Souraiu, Jacques (Ed.); Rodbroe, Inger (Ed.); Janssen, Marleen (Ed.) The Danish Resource Centre on Congenital Deafblindness (VCDBF), Denmark, and Viataal, The Netherlands. (2009)This is the last of four booklets on congenital deaf-blindness and communication. The first chapter addresses relevant issues of language. What is it? What is it used for? The stance taken by the authors is that the language observed in congenitally deaf-blind children is just a variation amongst the many forms of languages that human beings produce. The second chapter describes case stories from six countries (also illustrated on a DVD that accompanies the manual). They describe journeys through the development of communication for five children and four adults with congenital deafblindness. In the last chapter, language construction is addressed as a co-authored adventure that requires coordinated contributions between partners making the most of their shared skills and constraints. The main focus is on the typical features of language development observed in people with congenital deaf-blindness and on the competencies required of their communication partners. The cost is $50.00 for the set of 4 booklets. Available from Perkins Products http://www.perkinselearning.org/publications). To shop offline call 617-972-7308 or mail your request to Perkins Products, 175 North Beacon Street, Watertown, MA 02472. Publisher's web site: http://www.perkinselearning.org/publications.
Communication and Language Development --Raanes, Eli. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia. (2007) This is a brief summary of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. This presentation reports on findings in research on Norwegian tactual sign language.
Communication During Physical Activity: A Review of Strategies --Lieberman, Lauren; Arndt, Katrina. Monmouth, OR: DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, vol. 11, #3, Spring 2004, p. 13. (2004) This article briefly describes strategies for communicating with deafblind students during physical activity. It includes strategies for communicating during discrete activities as well as for continuous activities. Available on the web: http://documents.nationaldb.org/dbp/may2004.htm#strategies
Communication Fact Sheets for Parents --Stremel, Kathleen; Bixler, Betsy; Morgan, Susanne; Layton, Kristen. Monmouth, OR: National Technical Assistance Consortium for Children and Young Adults Who Are Deaf-Blind. (2002) This is a collection of fact sheets on the subject of communication. The purpose of these fact sheets is to provide information to parents and service providers so that they can better understand the communication and language modes and systems that may be appropriate for many children and youth who are deaf-blind. The booklet contains 28 fact sheets, each covering a particular aspect of communication. The attempt to address fundamental but complex issues related to the communication needs of children with visual and hearing impairments. While each fact sheet can be read and used separately, they will be a more effective learning tool when read collectively. Also available in spanish. Available from NTAC, Teaching Research, 345 N. Monmouth Ave., Monmouth, OR 97361, TTY: (503) 838-9623, FAX: (503) 838-8150 or request a copy from DB-LINK. Available on the web: https://nationaldb.org/library/page/535
Communication Made Easier: Facilitating Transitions for Students With Multiple Disabilities --Peck, Steven. TEACHING EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN, May/June 2004, vol.36, # 5, pp.60-63. (2004) This article is about how the author developed a book format called "Spend the Day with Me" to help students with multiple disabilities advocate for themselves. The book gives the student a voice to tell others what skills and special challenges they face daily and to communicate essential information to their teachers and families.
Communication Map Direct Observational Tool --Stremel, Kathleen. Miami Beach, FL: 7th International CHARGE Syndrome Conference, July 22nd - July 24th, 2005, Miami Beach, Florida. (2005) The communication map is is a performance assessment that serves as a visual profile. The map is used to show three major stages: the communication behavior as the child is currently demonstrating; communication behaviors that are determined to be appropriate targets for new objectives; and potential communication behaviors that may be appropriate in the future. This article contains directions, the assessment and the communication map.
Communication Partners: Do We Really Listen? --Hart, Paul. (2004) Text of a presentation given at the East Midlands Special Education Needs Regional Partnership at University College, Northampton, UK, September 24, 2004. A philosophical discussion about the meaning and essence of communication partnerships and shared understanding between deaf-blind people and their communication partners. Uses numerous quotations from educators in the field of deaf-blindness and in other fields. Includes a section on secondary intersubjectivity.
Communication Systems to Last a Lifetime: Implications and Strategies for Adolescents and Young Adults --Belote, Maurice. Austin, TX: Texas Deafblind Project. 2005 Texas Symposium on Deafblindness. (2005) This article offers strategies or suggestions that might assist educational teams and families as they consider how best to meet the communication system needs of their students, clients, sons, and daughters as they transition out of school. Discusses the need to create the best communication system possible while still receiving special education services, make sure to document the system so that changes do not occur each year, remember to differentiate between expressive and receptive communication needs, develop a system that meets everyone's needs, remember that the system must be accessible to its' user at all times, and try not to become overwhelmed it your time is limited with the user. Also included are Maurice's Core Beliefs About Communication and The Foundations of Communication, two additional handouts.
Communicative Intent: The Challenges Faced by the Student with Deafblindness and Motor Problems --Mamer, Linda. Austin,TX: Texas Deafblind Project. 2009 Texas Symposium on Deafblindness. (2009)Students who are deafblind with additional disabilities can present challenges in the development of their communication and sensory abilities. Best Practices of Deafblindness as they relate to these individuals will be presented. Video analysis will be used with the audience to assist in developing practical strategies that can be applied to their own students Available on the web:http://vision.alberta.ca/media/70560/comm%20handout%20format-1.pdf
2009-0181 Deaf-Blind Tech Gadgets in Educational Settings --Bhattacharyya, Anindya. DVIQ, Spring 2009, pp.36-39. (2009) This article focuses on specific communication tools and adaptive technology gadgets for deafblind students in different types of education settings at elementary, middle and high schools as well as post-secondary institutions.The equipment listed is categorized by one of the two primary uses, telecommunications access and face-to-face communication.
Fostering Choice-Making Skills: We've Come a Long Way but Still Have a Long Way to Go --Bambara, Linda. TASH. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 2004, Vol. 29, #3, pp. 169-171. (2004) Revisits the concept of choice making since the publication of the Shevin and Klein 1984 article (DB-LINK 1994-0729) "Importance of Choice-Making Skills for Students with Severe Disabilities". Progress in the acceptance of choice as evidenced by the growth in the self advocacy and self determination movements as well as research is discussed. A failure to understand the types of experiences that over time help persons with severe disabilities to develop, recognize and express preferences is cited as the greatest obstacle to developing choice making skills for this population.
Guidelines For Interacting With People Who Are Deaf-Blind --Helen Keller National Center. (2006) This brochure includes basic suggestions for interacting with a person who is deaf-blind, how to use "Print-on-Palm," and a diagram of the one-hand manual alphabet.
Hands and Reading : What Deafblind Adult Readers Tell Us --Ingraham, Cynthia L.; Andrews, Jean F. BRITISH JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT, vol. 28, #2, pp. 130-138. (2010)This qualitative study used in-depth interviews to explore the language and reading histories of three deaf-blind adults. Each participant was interviewed for 1 hour. The participants reflected on how they learned language and how they learned to read as children. They also described the technology that assists them in reading print. The interviews were conducted in sign language, videotaped, transcribed into English, and analyzed. The findings suggest that deaf-blind adults use a variety of auditory, visual, and tactile-kinesthetic strategies (e.g., Braille, large print, and raised print) in decoding English.
Holistic Communication Profiles for Children Who Are Deaf-Blind --Bruce, Susan Marie. AER JOURNAL: RESEARCH AND PRACTICE IN VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND BLINDNESS, Summer 2010, vol. 3, #3, pp. 106-114. (2010) This article presents a holistic communication profile to support structured informal assessment and individualized communication programming for children with multiple disabilities including deafblindness. The four aspects of communication (form, function, content, and context) are used as the profile’s primary organizational structure. This holistic communication profile provides a format by which to record the child’s level of communication and the development of pivotal social and cognitive milestones that influence communication development. Research literature on the profile components is shared to establish the relationships among the pivotal milestones and communication development. A sample holistic communication profile on a child who is deaf-blind is included. A companion document with a blank communication profile and a second sample profile is available here: http://www.nationaldb.org/documents/Holcommprofile.doc.
Intervention for Increasing Intentional Communication of a Young Deafblind: Renes Case --Rerrer, Maria Soldad Uribe; Grilli, Eliana Alcantara. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia. (2007) This is a brief summary of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. This workshop aims to show how a young child who is deafblind with limited level of communication succeeds in developing a broader level of intentional communication.
Name Cues --Belote, Maurice. CA: California Deaf-Blind Services. reSources, Spring 2005, Vol 11, #5, pp. 3-4. (2006) A name cue is a physical touch cue that an individual who is deaf-blind uses to identify the important people in his or her life. This article describes the importance of name cues and offers points to remember when choosing and using a name cue. Available on the web: http://www.sfsu.edu/~cadbs/Spring05.pdf
Promoting Social Interaction For Individuals With Communicative Impairments: Making Contact --Zeedyk, M. Suzanne. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers London. (2008) This book presents successful approaches to nurturing communicative abilities in people who have some type of communicative impairment. It covers both the theory and practical implementation of a number of different approaches including intensive interaction, co-creative communication, sensory integration, and music therapy, for individuals with a wide variety of conditions including autism, profound learning disabilities, deaf-blindness, severe early neglect, and dementia. It includes a chapter by Paul Hart (Sense Scotland) that describes how it is possible for individuals with congenital deaf-blindness to develop language and the characteristics of ideal communication exchanges between people who are deaf-blind and their communication partners. Publisher's web site: www.jkp.com
Reading Behavior as Communication --Hartshorne, Tim; Grassick, Sharon Barrey. Miami Beach, FL: 7th International CHARGE Syndrome Conference, July 22nd - July 24th, 2005, Miami Beach, Florida. (2005) Copy of a PowerPoint presentation. Focus on communication for infants/ toddlers in medical situations as well as youngsters post-hosital, defines broad range of communicative behaviors, offers tips, and a grid that describes the effect of sensory losses.
The Relief of Being Understood and Other Joys for Children with Deafblindness --Blaha, Robbie. Austin,TX: Texas Deafblind Project. 2009 Texas Symposium on Deafblindness. (2009) Nothing is more important to us than having others understand us. Because of their communication challenges and experiential differences, most children with deafblindness are much less likely to experience others who really understand them. This session shares some thoughts on important aspects of interactions with student with deafblindness and how we can help bring them joy. (The article not available.)
Sharing Communicative Landscapes with Congenitally Deafblind People: It's a Walk in the Park! --Hart, Paul. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Promoting Social Interaction For Individuals With Communicative Impairments: Making Contact. M. Suzanne Zeedyk (Ed.) (2008) In this book chapter Paul Hart explores the topic of natural language development for individuals who are deaf-blind by considering the following questions: (1) Is it theoretically possible for congenitally deaf-blind people to develop language?, (2) What are the key features underpinning attitudes and approaches (shared communication landscapes) of the communication partners?, and (3) What would an intervention designed to develop these "shared communication landscapes" look like? Hart reviews how language naturally develops in hearing-sighted and deaf children and proposes the possibility of a new mode of language, one that begins from the perceptual possibilities of the deafblind person (i.e., tactile language) that is then jointly negotiated with communication partners who are willing to "move closer to the perceptual world of the deafblind person." Characteristics of the shared communication landscapes that are described include trust, physical proximity, a narrative structure, routines, drama, emotions (the chapter includes a brief description Bodily Emotional Traces), and joint awareness and attention. Publisher's web site: www.jkp.com
"She May Not Talk, But She Does Communicate": Disability Support Workers Perceptions of Interactions With a Person With Profound Intellectual Disability --Forster, Sheridan; Lacono, Teresa. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia. (2007) This is a brief summary of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. This presentation describes the complex interactive relationship between disability support workers and people with profound intellectual disability.
Sherborne Developmental Movement Makes You to be in the Same Level as the Deafblind Child and Equal in Your Communication --Friberg, Sonja. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia. (2007) This is text of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. This presentation describes the Sherborne Developmental Movement as a means of developing body awareness, communication and building relationships.
2011-0049 Supporting the Development of Literacy in Deafblind Children Through Interactive Dedicated Software : A Pilot Project --Elsendoorn, Ben A.G.; Brouwers, Peter; Luiken, Hans. DBI REVIEW, #45, January - June 2010, pp. 34-39. (2010)Describes a project that investigated whether the introduction of computer-controlled interactive activities and exercises could contribute to the development of literacy in a 9-year-old student with deaf-blindness and additional spasmodic motor problems. Special exercises were developed using dedicated software. All exercises were gradually introduced to the child who learned to work independently.
Tactile Strategies for Children Who Have Visual Impairments and Multiple Disabilities: Promoting Communication and Learning Skills --Chen, Deborah; Downing, June E. New York: AFB Press. (2006) This book is designed to help service providers and family members learn to interact through touch with children who need tactile information to support their learning. The introduction includes a report of focus group findings and the results of research performed with four children during Project SALUTE, a model demonstration project funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Other chapter topics include: the sense of touch, supporting interactions though touch, assessing tactile skills and planning interventions, focusing on tactile strategies, considering multiple communication options, adapting manual signs to meet a child's needs, selecting appropriate tactile strategies, and encouraging emergent literacy. Cost: $39.95. Available from AFB Press. Phone: 800-232-3044. E-mail: email@example.com. There is a also companion video (or DVD) to this book called "Tactile Learning Strategies: Interacting with Children Who Have Visual Impairments and Multiple Disabilities." The contents of the book and video reflect the activities of Project SALUTE, and this book is very similar to a manual published by California State University, Northridge, called "Successful Adaptations for Learning to Use Touch Effectively: Interacting with Children Who Are Deaf-Blind or Visually Impaired and have Additional Disabilities" by Chen, et al. Publisher's web site: http://www.afb.org
Talking Photo Albums : Tips for Home or School --Demchak, MaryAnn. Nevada Dual Sensory Impairment Project. (2004) This one page handout provides ideas on using talking photo albums as a great communication aid for individuals who have limited verbal communication skills. Available on the web:http://www.unr.edu/ndsip/tipsheets/talkingphotoalbums.pdf Publisher's web site:http://www.unr.edu/educ/ndsip/
Teaching Communication Skills to Students with Severe Disabilities --Downing, June E., Ph.D. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. (2005)Helping students with severe disabilities communicate as effectively as possible with teachers and classmates in general education environments is the scope of this book. Much of the information may also apply to other settings such as home, community and workplace environments. The focus is on students with severe cognitive disabilities or developmental delay, autism, severe sensory impairments (including deaf-blindness), or severe physical disabilities. Specific topics include assessment of communication skills, teaching communication and conversation skills (e.g., gestures, body language, signing, objects, AAC devices) and specific augmentative and alternative communication techniques (e.g., symbol systems, electronic communication devices). Order from Paul H. Brookes Publishing, (800) 638-3775. Publisher's web site: http://www.brookespublishing.com/
Using Augmentative Communication for Providing Positive Behavior Support to Minimize Challenging Behavior --Bhargava, Dolly; Bloom, Ylana. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia. (2007) This is text of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. This presentation describes positive behavioral support as an effective tool to address challenging behaviors.
We Have Contact! Maylands, Western Australia: Senses Foundation, Inc. (2004) "We Have Contact!" presents a sensitive and respectful approach to interacting effectively with individuals who are deaf-blind and have additional disabilities. Strategies for interacting with children and adults are shown using examples from Individual Communication Guides (ICGs). ICGs are specially produced videos demonstrating a particular deaf-blind individual’s personalized communication system, so that all who have contact with the individual can learn to interact effectively through consistent use of that system, and acknowledge and respond to that person’s communication efforts. Important concepts such as acknowledging behavior as communication are presented by the use of examples of children of a variety of ages and one adult.
What Are You Thinking?: Supporting Caretakers to Communicate with Congenital Deafblind Persons about Emotions and Experiences --Damen, Saskia. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia. (2007) This is text of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. This presentation describes the development of the idea that communication partners of persons with congenital deafblindness should focus on tactile meaning negotiation.