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Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) Bibliography

by DB-LINK on May 1, 2009
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This is a partial list of materials on this topic available from the DB-LINK Catalog Database.  If you have additional questions, please contact us via email:

Updated 4/2009


ADARA DeafBlind SIS: Congenital Rubella Syndrome and DeafBlindness --O'Donnell, Nancy. ADARA UPDATE, #3, 2007, pp. 9,16. (2007) This brief article describes the current status of congenital rubella syndrome in the U.S., late onset manifestations and a section on the international scope on congenital rubella syndrome.


Ageing Process and the Late Manifestation of Conditions Related to the Cause of Congenitally Deafblind Adults in Denmark --Laustrup, Birthe. DBI REVIEW, #33, January-June 2004, pp. 4-7. (2004) The Information Centre on Congenital Deafblindness in Denmark conducted a survey that began collecting information in 1999. The purpose of the survey was to collect information about the aging process and late manifestations of the causes of deafblindness. Participants included everyone, age 18 and over, diagnosed with congenital deafblindness in Denmark. The survey compared individuals diagnosed with congenital rubella syndrome, with individual with other etiologies. A summary of the survey findings are presented in this article.


Changing Epidemiology of Rubella in the 1990s : On the Verge of Elimination and New Challenges for Control and Prevention --Reef, Susan E., MD; Frey, Teryl K., Ph.D.; Theall, Katherine, MPH; Abernathy, Emily, MS; Burnett, Cindy L.; Icenogle, Joseph, Ph.D.; McCauley, Mary Mason, MTSC; Wharton, Melinda, MD, MPH. JAMA, vol. 287, #4, January 23/30, 2002, pp. 464-472. (2002) This article reviews the epidemiology of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the United States from 1990 through 1999. Significant changes have made the disease on the verge of elimination in the U.S.. Discusses the need for improved strategies for rubella control among foreign-born populations and enhanced surveillance to document interruption of transmission of indigenous rubella and CRS in the United States. Provides method and results of the research conducted.


Congenital Rubella : Victims and Victors --van Dijk, Jan. 2001 Symposium on Deafblindness: Communities & Connections. (2001) This is the group of handouts Jan van Dijk presented at his workshop at the 2001 Symposium on Deafblindness. Describes the delayed manifestations congenital rubella including the effects of bi-lateral cataract and/or hearing impairment on behavior and learning. Discusses a number of his theories and research studies.


Congenital Rubella : Down But Not Out THE LANCET, vol. 360, #9335, September 7, 2002, pp. 1-4. (2002) This article describes the declining, but still reported cases of congenital rubella syndrome in the United Kingdom. Publisher's web site:


Congenital Rubella Syndrome : Neuropsychological Functioning and Implications Illustrated by a Case Study --Nicholas, Jude. Norway: Vestlandet Resource Centre. (2000) This case study introduces information on Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) and associated behavioral and neuropsychological components. Neuropsychological aspects of CRS are discussed including a discussion of a longitudinal study of behavior in children with CRS and other physical disabilities. A case study involving a 16 year-old girl with a hearing impairment and a mother who had Rubella Syndrome in early pregnancy is provided. Results of a neuropsychological evaluation and conclusions are discussed as well as intervention techniques.


Congenital Rubella Syndrome and Educational Practice : Neurobiological Influences and Intervention Illustrated by a Case --Nicholas, Jude; Imerslund, Anne-Berit; Andreassen, Evabritt. Brantford, Ontario: Canadian Deafblind and Rubella Association. 13th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, August 5-10, 2003, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. (2003) This is the text of a workshop presentation given at the 13th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. The paper describes a working group established in Norway to examine congenital rubella individuals in a systemic way.


Congenital Rubella Syndrome Late Manifestations: New Challenges for Rehabilitation and Mental Health Providers --Burg, Laura, LCSW; Friend, Janis. JADARA, Vol. 40, Nos. 3, 2007, pp. 27-33. (2007) Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) is a little known syndrome that is emerging in those people whose mother was infected with rubella while pregnant with them. As the people from the epidemics of the 1960's age physical and mental health issues are emerging, thought to be directly a cause from the rubella virus. Due to the physical and mental health issues these people are showing up in doctor's, mental health professional's and vocational rehabilitation counselor's offices, which have little knowledge of the syndrome. This article is a starting point to learn more about CRS and its effects on the persons affected.


Congenital Rubella Syndrome Packet (2001) An information packet with various articles, such as History of congenital rubella syndrome, report on a survey of Late Emerging Manifestations, a parent's story, a National Registry form, and more.


Congenital Rubella Syndrome - Where Have We Been? --O'Donnell, Nancy. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia. (2007) This is a brief summary of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. This presentation reports on research as to the late onset issues in those with Congenital Rubella syndrome (CRS); maintaining an international focus on CRS, and identifying resources and future activities.


Control and Prevention of Rubella : Evaluation and Management of Suspected Outbreaks, Rubella in Pregnant Women, and Surveillance for Congenital Rubella Syndrome --Zimmerman, Laura A., M.P.H.; Reef, Susan E., M.D.; McCauley, Mary M., M.T.S.C. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control (CDC) MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT (MMWR), vol. 50, #RR-12, July 13, 2001, pp. 1-23. (2001) This article discusses the Center for Disease Control's (CDC's) National Immunization Program new recommendations for the control and prevention of rubella. Discusses what public health officials should do in response to reports of suspected rubella to determine if an outbreak exists, evaluate its scope, and implement appropriate control measures. Includes a supplemental activity for continuing education credits sponsored by the CDC.


Elimination of Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome--United States, 1969-2004 --Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR (MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT), MMWR Early Release, vol. 54, March 21, 2005, pp.1-4. (2005) This describes the results of a panel convened in October 2004 to assess progress toward elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the United States. The panel members concluded unanimously that rubella is no longer endemic in the United States. The report summarizes the history and accomplishments of the rubella vaccination program in the United States and the Western Hemisphere and the challenges posed by rubella for the future. It includes statistics about rubella including an estimate that the 1962-1965 worldwide rubella epidemic resulted in 20,000 infants with CRS. Available on the web:


An Epidemiological and Clinical Study of Ocular Manifestations of Congenital Rubella Syndrome in Omani Children --Khandekar Rajiv; Al Awaidy, Salah; Ganesh, Anuradha; Bawikar, Shyam. ARCHIVES OF OPHTHALMOLOGY, vol. 122, April 2004, pp. 541-545. (2004) This study of individuals with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Oman analyzed the prevalence of ophthalmic disorders and associated systemic problems. It included a review of 32 people reported by the surveillance system in Oman from 1987 through 2002. The age-adjusted prevalence of CRS was 73.2 per million in the Omani population younger than 20 years, and the incidence was 0.6 per 1000 live births. Cataract, retinitis, microphthalmos, and glaucoma were observed in 11, 16, 6, and 4 patients, respectively. Keratoconus, corneal hydrops, and spontaneous resorption of lens were found in 1 patient each. Vision testing was possible in 16 children; 4 were bilaterally blind. Among the 11 patients with cataract, hearing loss, cardiac anomalies, and neuropsychologic anomalies were found in 7, 4, and 6 children, respectively. In patients with cataract, the functional results of surgery, despite state-of-the-art ophthalmic care, are poor. Patients who had undergone eye surgery had significantly lower visual acuity as compared with those who did not have surgery.


Incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome at a Hospital Serving a Predominately Hispanic Population, El Paso, Texas --Zimmerman, Laura, MPH; Reef, Susan E., MD. PEDIATRICS, vol. 107, #3, March 2001, pp. 1-4. (2001) This article examines the higher incidence of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) among infants of Hispanic mothers. Recent rubella outbreaks have occurred primarily among Hispanic adults, many of whom are foreign-born natives of countries where rubella vaccination is not routine or has only recently been implemented. The objective of the study was to estimate the incidence of CRS in a hospital serving a predominately Hispanic population.


Lee Ann Bryan: Past, Now and Future --Bryan, Lee Ann. Austin, TX: Texas Deafblind Project. 2005 Texas Symposium on Deafblindness. (2005) Series of pictures, captions and news clippings that tell the life story of a young woman who is deaf-blind as a result of congenital rubella syndrome


Malta Experience --Schembri, Irene. Malta: Workshop, vol. 22, #7, 1999, pp. 1-4. Proceedings of the 12th Deafblind International World Conference, July 20-25, 1999, Lisbon, Portugal. (1999) The author describes her experience in having a son with congenital rubella syndrome. Describes her experiences when he was born, the early diagnosis, and how she was able to get him the treatment he needed in London. Describes how she found Sense International a great help to her during her visits to London. Describes problems her son faced with his education and how the staff at Sense again helped guide her. Provides inspiration for other parents facing similar challenges to never give up.


Medical and Psychological Impact of Congenital Rubella Syndrome in Adults --van Nunen-Schrauwen, Trees; Schoenmaker, Anneke. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia. (2007) This is a brief summary of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. This presentation describes the development of a health watch program for medical and behavioural late onset problems in congenital rubella syndrome adults.


New DBI Rubella Network - Let's Get Going --O'Donnell, Nancy. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia. (2007) This is a brief summary of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. This presentation gives a brief history of the newly formed OBI Rubella Network, allow interested parties to identify themselves and to work, as a group, to establish short and long term goals and a plan to accomplish them.


Optical Complications in Congenital Rubella Syndrome --Weisinger, Harrison Scott; Pesudovs, Konrad. Optometry, Vol. 73, No. 7, July 2002, pp. 418-424. (2002) This report presents a case of CRS, manifesting with both auditory and visual loss, including changes in visual acuity and visual fields. These losses were the result of bilateral pigment retinopathy and cataract, though the patient is also at risk for the development of glaucoma. Management of ocular CRS is similar to that for age-related degeneration, including counseling, regular monitoring, and the provision of low vision devices, if required.


Prenatal Rubella, Premorbid Abnormalities, and Adult Schizophrenia --Brown, Alan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; Babulas, Vicki; Malaspina, Dolores; Gorman, Jack M.; Susser, Ezra S. New York: BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY, vol. 49, 2001, pp. 473-486. (2001) This research examines whether rubella-exposed subjects were destined to develop schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) when compared with exposed control subjects. Results show that the rubella-exposed birth cohort evidenced a markedly increased risk of SSD, especially in persons with early gestational rubella exposure.


Prevention of Congenital Rubella Syndrome : What Makes Sense in 2006? --Robinson J. L.; Lee B. E; Preiksaitis J. K.; Plitt S; Tipples G. A. EPIDEMIOL REV. 2006 vol. 28 pp.81-87. (2006) This review summarizes the practical aspects of rubella immunization programs in both developed and developing countries. Routine use of rubella vaccine is gradually resulting in the elimination of endemic rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the developed world, and routine use of vaccine in young children is now being implemented in many developing countries. However, such programs must achieve high immunization rates or be supplemented by the immunization of seronegative women of childbearing age to prevent a paradoxical increase in CRS as the burden of illness is shifted to an older age group. There are many successful prenatal screening programs for rubella immunity in developed countries, but screening prior to pregnancy could theoretically prevent even more cases of CRS. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is the most commonly used laboratory test for screening, but the protective titer remains to be established. The need for reimmunization of women who serorevert or who remain seronegative following rubella vaccine has not been established. Surveillance for rubella cases and for CRS is vital in assessment of the ongoing success of rubella immunization programs.


Prevention of Congenital Rubella Syndrome --Canadian Paediatric Society. PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, vol. 12, #9, pp. 795-77. (2007) This position statement by the Canadian Paediatric Society describes the current state of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Canada where there are still sporadic small epidemics of rubella. Includes recommendations for the prevention of CRS. Available on the web:


Progress Toward Elimination of Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome -- the Americas, 2003-2008 --Castillo-solorzano, C., et al. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT, vol. 57, #43, October 31, 2008, pp. 1176-1179: (2008) Describes initiatives and outcomes related to a 2003 Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) resolution calling for the elimination of rubella and CRS in the Region of the Americas by the year 2010. [See also record 2008-0586.] Available on the web:


Rubella Outbreak in an Unvaccinated Religious Community in the Netherlands Leads to Cases of Congenital Rubella Syndrome --van der Veen, Ytje; Hahne, Susan; Ruijs, Helma; van Binnendijk, Rob; Timen, Aura; van Loon, Anton; de Melker, Hester. EUROSURVEILLANCE, vol. 10, Issues 10-12, October-December 2005, p. 1. (2005) This short report describes the outbreak in an unvaccinated religious community in the Netherlands of Congenital Rubella Syndrome. Available on the web:


Unseen Blindness, Unheard Deafness, and Unrecorded Death and Disability: Congenital Rubella in Kumasi, Ghana --Lawn, Joy E., BMedSci. BS, MRCP (Paeds); Reef, Susan, MD; Baffoe-Bonnie, Benjamin, MD; Adadevoh, Sidney, MD; Caul, E. Owen, PhD, FIBMS, FRCPath; Griffin, George E., PhD. FRCP. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 90, No. 10, October 2000, pp.1555-1561. (2000) The objectives of this study were to identify congenital rubella syndrome cases, ascertain rubella antibody seroprevalence during pregnancy, and recommend strategies for congenital rubella sydrome surveillance. The conclusions were that congenital rubella syndrome occurs in Ghana but is not reported. Information about congenital rubella syndrome and rubella in sub-Saharan Africa is needed to evaluate inclusion of rubella vaccine in proposed measles control campaigns.

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