Cortical Visual Impairment Bibliography

by DB-LINK on May 1, 2011
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This is a partial list of materials on this topic available from the DB-LINK Catalog Database.  If you have additional questions, please contact us via email:

Updated 5/2011


Another View of Cortical Visual Impairment: Issues Related to Facial Recognition --Morse, Mary T., Ph.D. Handout from a session at the 2004 Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired (AER) Biennial International Conference, Orlando, FL, July 13-18, 2004. (2004)This handout covers commonly known general characteristics of CVI; characteristics of CVI not commonly addressed; prosopagnosia and facial agnosia; and some diagnostic strategies. The handout also includes contact information for the author.


Assessment and Intervention for Cortical Visual Impairments and Auditory Processing Disorders Austin: National Technical Assistance Center. Conference Proceedings from the NTAC Topical Workshop held in Austin, TX from April 30-May2, 2001. (2001)This is the agenda, handouts and materials used at the NTAC Topical Workshop on Cortical Visual Impairments and Auditory Processing Disorders held in Austin, TX from April 30-May 2, 2001. Topics covered include pediatric neurology and sensory development, cortical visual impairments, and auditory processing disorders. Speakers include Alan Lantzy, MD, Chairman of the Department of Pediatrics, West Penn Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, Christine Roman of Marshall University, Charleston, WV, and Jim Durkel, Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, Austin, TX, respectively.


Can CVI* Co-Exist With Other Ocular Impairments in CHARGE?: A Parent's Perspective --Lauger, Kim. CHARGE ACCOUNTS, vol. 13, #2, Summer 2003, pp. 2-4. (2003)This article tells the story of Dylan, as written by his mother, and their work with doctors on both CHARGE and Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI). Included are descriptions of visits with doctors and educators, as well as a section on the current debate about CHARGE/CVI. Also includes a fact sheet on CVI with definition, cause, characteristics, behavioral/visual characteristics and contact information.


Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children: A Longitudinal Case Study of Functional Outcomes Beyond the Visual Acuities --Lam, Fook Chang; Lovett, Fiona; Dutton, Gordon N. 2010, JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & BLINDNESS, vol. 104, #10, October 2010, pp. 625-635.Damage to the areas of the brain that are responsible for higher visual processing can lead to severe cerebral visual impairment (CVI). The prognosis for higher cognitive visual functions in children with CVI is not well described. We therefore present our six-year follow-up of a boy with CVI and highlight intervention approaches that have proved consistently effective.


Cortical Visual Impairment --Anthony, Tanni L. VIBRATIONS, NEWSLETTER OF COLORADO SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WHO ARE DEAFBLIND, Winter 2000, pp. 5-6. (2000)This article is a summary of Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI) which occurs when there is damage to the visual cortex, to the posterior visual pathways, or to both places in the brain. It is caused by brain trauma or neurological insult such as anoxia to the brain. The article reviews the similarities and differences between CVI and other visual impairments. It also gives guidelines for home programming based on the needs of children with CVI.


Cortical Visual Impairment: Ideas for Intervention --Roman, Christine. Miami Beach, FL: 7th International CHARGE Syndrome Conference, July 22nd - July 24th, 2005, Miami Beach, Florida. (2005)Bulleted list of ideas for intervention under the following topics: latency, movement, visual complexity, visual novelty, light gazing behaviors, visual field and visual motor responses. Also includes a list of pre-screening questions.


Cortical Visual Impairment: Etiology, Associated Findings, and Prognosis in a Tertiary Care Setting --Khetpal V; Donahue SP. Journal Of AAPOS: The Official Publication Of The American Association For Pediatric Ophthalmology And Strabismus / American Association For Pediatric Ophthalmology And Strabismus, 2007 Jun; Vol. 11 (3), pp. 235-9. (2007)PURPOSE: To evaluate the etiology, prognosis, and associated neurological and ophthalmologic findings of children with cortical visual impairment (CVI) at a tertiary care referral facility. METHODS: Records from patients visiting the Vanderbilt University Pediatric Ophthalmology Center during 2002 to 2005 were reviewed, and 98 patients were identified with an International Classification of Disease (9th ed.) coding of CVI (377.75). The charts were reviewed to assess presenting symptoms. The clinic and imaging notes were correlated with visual function (graded on a scale of I to VI). RESULTS: The most common etiologies were perinatal hypoxia (35%), prematurity (29%), hydrocephalus (19%), structural central nervous system abnormalities (11%), and seizures (10%). Many children (69%) had multiple etiologies. Associated ophthalmic abnormalities included esotropia (19%), exotropia (40%), nystagmus (21%), and optic atrophy (42%). Significant refractive error (> +3.00 D or < -2.00 D) was common (20%). Associated neurological findings included seizures (60%), cerebral palsy (37%), periventricular leukomalacia (12%), hemiparesis (21%), and hearing loss (11%). Fifty-three percent of children initially diagnosed with CVI were followed for a period of 0.5 to 10 years. Forty percent of the patients showed no improvement in visual function; 34% had minimal improvement, and 17% had mild improvement. Only 6% of the patients had significant improvement in visual function. Eight patients had fixing and following or better acuity at last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The major risk factors for CVI are perinatal hypoxia, premature birth, and hydrocephalus. Most patients have associated serious neurological and ophthalmologic abnormalities. While many patients have some recovery in vision acuity, most never see well. Patients with the most improvement in visual function were those having better initial acuity.


Cortical Visual Impairment: Common Characteristics and Intervention Strategies, Part 1 --Chen, Deborah, Ph.D. Terre Haute, IN: The Blumberg Center, Indiana State University. Important Topics in Deafblind Education. (1996)This video demonstrates children with cortical visual impairments being tested for visual fields and visual abilities. It discusses strategies and adaptations for learning, communication, reading and writing. It stresses the importance of using developmentally appropriate practices and objects in their environment to enhance learning. It provides examples of how to develop the different visual skills, localizing, scanning, fixation, tracking, gaze shifting, eye-hand coordination in a natural environment.


Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI): Characteristics and Intervention Strategies --Center on Disabilities and Human Development. Boise: University of Idaho. (January 2007)This is the second in a series of booklets on topics that are relevant to children and young adults who are deaf-blind. The content of each booklet is written to provide practical information to families and service providers. This year's focus is on the topic of cortical visual impairment (CVI) which has been identified as the leading cause of visual impairment in the western world.


Cortical Visual Impairment: CVI versus Ocular Visual Impairment --Chen, Deborah, Ph.D. Important Topics in Deafblind Education. (1996)This video first describes what cortical visual impairment is as compared to ocular visual impairments. It describes common characteristics including a normal eye exam, variable vision, short visual attention, no nystagmus, no eye pressing, light gazing, and photophobia is 1/3 of the cases in individuals with cortical visual impairment. Ocular visual impairments by comparison usually shows atypical eye exam, consistent vision and visual attention, nystagmus, eye pressing, restriction of peripheral fields, head shaking and light gazing.


Cortical Visual Impairment in Children --Edmond, Jane C.; .Foroozan, Rod. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2006 Dec;17(6):509-12. (2006)PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cortical visual impairment is rapidly becoming a leading cause of visual loss in children in developed countries predominately because of the improved survival rates of premature infants over the past decade. RECENT FINDINGS: Most cases of cortical visual impairment arise from hypoxic ischemic injury to watershed areas of the brain. In the preterm infant the watershed areas are in the subcortex around the ventricles, while in the term infant the watershed areas are between the major arteries with injury to the subcortex and cortex. Therefore, preterm and term injury will manifest different ocular and visual system abnormalities as a result of this damage. Cognitive visual dysfunction, a type of cortical visual impairment, may occur in cases of damage to the peristriate cortex (association areas of the brain). The anterior visual pathways may also be damaged in a retrograde, transsynaptic fashion in cases of cortical visual impairment. SUMMARY: Cortical visual impairment is a prevalent cause of visual loss in children. It encompasses a wide range of visual disabilities from no light reception to normal visual acuity with cognitive visual dysfunction.


Cortical Visual Impairment in Infants and Children --Afshari, Mehran A., M.D., M.P.H.; Afshari, Nasrin A., M.D.; Fulton, Anne B., M.D. INTERNATIONAL OPHTHALMOLOGY CLINICS, vol. 41, #1, Winter 2001, pp. 159-169. (2001)This article discusses Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI), its epidemiological features, etiology, and clinical findings. Discusses visual acuity, light gazing and photophobia as features of this disorder. Other features covered include visual fields, absence of nystagmus, motility disorders, normal pupillary reflex, and blindsight. Electrophysiological testing to test retinal function, visual recovery, and imaging studies can study the extent of the damage to the central nervous system. Also provides information on prognosis, and management of CVI.


CVI Cues for Home --Gloyn, A. Miami Beach, FL: 7th International CHARGE Syndrome Conference, July 22nd - July 24th, 2005, Miami Beach, Florida. (2005)A list of tips for parents working with on vision tasks with a child with cortical visual impairment.


CVI Lecture Series --Hyvarinen Lea. Logan, UT: SKI-HI Institute, Utah State University. (no date) This CVI Lecture Series was first presented as a Webcast series via the Internet in the spring of 2004 through the spring of 2005. It uses a CD-ROM format that may not run on some computers without adding additional software. The series has been formatted onto seven CD-ROMs and consists of six lectures: (1) General Features and Symptoms of CVI; (2) Functional Vision Pathways; (3) Visual Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity, Color Vision, and Motion Perception; (4) Visual Field and Spatial Awareness; (5) Vision for Communication; (6) Questions and Answers. Also included is a transcript of each lecture, the PowerPoint slides used by Dr. Hyvarinen, a transcript of the threaded discussions, four case studies of children with CVI, several resource articles, and a bibliography. Dr. Hyvarinen is a Finnish ophthalmologist who is interested in the psychophysics of vision and in the development of visually impaired children for over 30 years. Cost: $125. Available from HOPE Inc., 1856 North 1200 East, North Logan, UT 84341. Publisher's web site:


CVI Perspectives --Roman, Christine; Lantzy, Alan. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind, Inc. (2005) In this multi-part video, Dr. Christine Roman, APH project leader for cortical visual impairment, guides the viewer through three perspectives of CVI. The first segment offers an in-depth look at the characteristics of CVI and recommended approaches for educators to apply when working with children with CVI. The second segment is a clinical examination of the causes of CVI with neonatologist Dr. Alan Lantzy. In the third segment, parents and family members tell their stories of how CVI has impacted them--their experiences from the difficulties of diagnosis, to how they learned about CVI, where they found help, and how they found hope for their children. Cost: $25. Available (video/DVD) from the American Printing House for the Blind, Inc., 1839 Frankfort Ave, Louisville, KY 40206. Publisher's web site:


CVI Resolution Chart and CVI Range Assessment Protocol --Roman, Christine, Ph.D. New York: AFB Press. Proceedings of the Summit on Cerebral/Cortical Visual Impairment Educational, Family, and Medical Perspectives, April 30, 2005, E. Dennison and A. H. Lueck (Eds.) (2005)This material was developed by Dr. Roman and was made available at the CVI Summit on April 30, 2005. It includes a CVI Resolution Chart. The chart helps develop areas of needs for development of IEP goals and objectives. The second assessment protocol chart known as the CVI Range is intended for multiple evaluations over a period of time.


Development of Visual Acuity in Children With Cerebral Visual Impairment --Lim, Mira; Soul, Janet S.; Hansen, Ronald, M.; Mayer, Luisa; Moskowitz, Anne; Fulton, Anne B. ARCHIVES OF OPHTHALMOLOGY, vol. 123, #9, pp. 1215-1220. (2005)This study looked at the development of visual acuity in 19 children, aged six months to six years, with cerebral visual impairment and a history of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. All children had measurable preferential looking (PL) and visual evoked potential (VEP) acuity, despite poor visual behavior. In nearly all, both PL and VEP acuity were below normal for age. Modest increases in PL and VEP acuity occurred during early childhood in many, but the rate of increase was lower than normal.


Facts about CVI --Lauger, Kimberly. Miami Beach, FL: 7th International CHARGE Syndrome Conference, July 22nd - July 24th, 2005, Miami Beach, Florida. (2005)Based on the work of Christine Roman, this presentation about CVI lists facts, characteristics, signs and symptoms, and guiding principles on interventions.


Interventions for Young Children with Visual Impairments and Students with Visual and Multiple Disabilities --Lueck, Amanda Hall; Heinze, Tony. New York: AFB Press. Functional Vision: A Practitioner's Guide to Evaluation and Intervention. Amanda Hall Lueck (Ed.). (2004) This book chapter emphasizes ways to promote the use of functinal vision within meaningful activities across typical environments. Starting with activities and programs for infants and moving through to the school age child, the chapter includes details about maximizing visual function through instruction. There are sample forms for analyzing daily routines and for determining a childs visual behaviors. Many instructional strategies are detailed in sidebars and include: Attributes of visual stimuli; Methods to Optimize Stimuli; Light Structuring; Light Pairing; and Special Strategies for Children With CVI. Publisher's web site:


Outcomes and Opportunities: A Study of Children with Cortical Visual Impairment -- Lantzy, Christine A. Roman; Lantzy, Alan. 2010, JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & BLINDNESS, vol. 104, #10, October 2010, pp. 649-653.


Proceedings of the Summit on Cerebral/Cortical Visual Impairment: Educational, Family, and Medical Perspectives, April 30, 2005 --Dennison, Elizabeth (Ed.); Lueck, Amanda Hall (Ed.) New York: AFB Press. (2005) This summit brought together educators, medical professionals, and families, to discuss issues related to cortical visual impairment (CVI). Panels considered the following topics: the definition of CVI, clinical and functional measures used to identify children with CVI, how brain research can be integrated into education and rehabilitation of children with CVI, available evidence that can be used to serve children with CVI, and research and training needs in the field. These proceedings include background materials used for the panels, the text of the proceedings, and printed copies of PowerPoint presentations. Cost: $39.95. Available from AFB press: E-mail: Publisher's web site:


RELIABILITY OF THE CVI RANGE: A Functional Vision Assessment for Children with Cortical Visual Impairment [Doctoral Dissertation] / Newcomb, Sandra. -- University of Maryland: 2009, 145.

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of the CVI Range (Roman-Lantzy, 2007), a tool used to conduct functional vision assessments of children with cortical visual impairment. The study assessed 104 children. All of the children had additional disabilities (22 had hearing impairment). Twenty-seven were tested by two examiners to determine inter-rater reliability; 20 were tested on two occasions to determine the test-retest reliability; and 57 were tested one time by a single examiner. The CVI Range had an internal consistency measure or alpha of .96. The inter-rater reliability coefficient was .98 and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .99. In addition, the CVI Range has two sections that are scored differently and the scores from the two sections were compared to determine if they provided similar scores and therefore similar implications for intervention. Kappa, or the index of agreement, for the two parts of the assessment was .88. Results of this study indicate that The CVI Range is a reliable instrument.


Survey for Parents of Children With Cortical or Cerebral Visual Impairments -- Jackel, Bernadette; Wilson, Michelle; Hartmann, Elizabeth. 2010, JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & BLINDNESS, vol. 104, #10, October 2010, pp. 613-623.

This article summarizes the results of a survey of 80 parents of children with cortical or cerebral visual impairment (CVI) regarding how a CVI diagnosis is received and supports that are provided after the diagnosis, the educational supports received by children with CVI, and the parents' perceptions of the support that they and their children receive.


Validation of an Interview Instrument to Identify Behaviors Characteristic of Cortical Visual Impairment in Infants --Roman, Christine A. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. (1996)This is a doctoral dissertation. The results of this study demonstrated that responses of parents/caregivers to a set of interview questions can reliably differentiate CVI from optical visual impairment: reports from parents or caregivers of infants and children with CVI were very different from the reports from parents and caregivers of infants and children with optical visual impairment. Furthermore, results showed that responses on the interview and the behavioral assessment of neurologically at-risk infants were very strongly correlated: the ways in which parents/caregivers reported visual behaviors of their infants were highly consistent with the performance of the infants on an independent behavioral visual assessment. The study has shown that one possible answer to solving the CVI puzzle may be obtained by asking the true experts, the parents or caregivers of the infants in question.


The Visual Brain in Action --Milner, A. David; Goodale, Melvyn A. New York: Oxford University Press. Oxford Psychology Series; no 43. (2006) This second edition includes the unchanged text from the original edition plus an epilogue that reviews subsequent developments in relevant areas of psychology, neuroscience and behavior. Especially important are advances in neuroimaging and functional MRI technology that allow scientists to plot in detail the patterns of activity within the visual brains of behaving and perceiving humans. Includes a chapter on cortical blindness.

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