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Functional Vision Materials Bibliography

by DB-LINK on May 1, 2011
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This is a partial list of materials on this topic available from DB-LINK. In most instances, DB-LINK is able to provide a copy of the complete article. For this and other questions or information that you may need, please contact us via email at

Updated 5/2011


Assessment --Levack, Nancy. Austin: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired. Low Vision: A Resource Guide with Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments. (1994) The chapter on vision assessment includes information about examinations by eye specialists, clinical low vision evaluations, functional vision evaluations (including a brief section about assessment students who are very young or who have significant developmental disabilities), and learning media assessments. An "Observations for the Functional Vision Evaluation" form is included in the appendix. References are provided to support recommendations about functional vision assessment but do not appear to be research-based. Publisher's web site:


Bibliography: Functional Vision Assessment for Preschool Children with Visual Impairments --Gleason, Deborah, M.Ed. Watertown, MA: Preschool Services, Perkins School for the Blind. (1997)Annotated bibliography describing commercially available functional vision screening assessments, their applicability to populations and ordering information. This is an update to an earlier version with additions by VIISA Project at SKI-HI Institute.


Evaluation Methods and Functional Implications: Young Children with Visual Impairments and Students with Visual and Multiple Disabilities --Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla. New York: AFB Press. Functional Vision: A Practitioner's Guide to Evaluation and Intervention. Amanda Hall Lueck (Ed.). (2004) This book (chapter 5) provides detailed information about the assessment of functional vision for young children with visual impairments and for students with both visual and multiple disabilities. Covers the components of a functional vision assessment and testing methods, the variety of factors to consider when planning an assessment, and the need to consider how assessment results fit together for this complex population of children. A functional vision evaluation form summarizing much of the information gathered using the tests described is appended. An extensive reference list citing research articles in optometry, ophthalmology, and other journals is included. Includes list of evaluation tools and instrments that may be used in the evaluation of functional vision. Publisher's web site:


Foundations of Low Vision: Clinical and Functional Perspectives --Corn, Anne L. (Ed.); Koenig, Alan J. (Ed.) New York, NY: AFB Press. (1996)Contributions to this work on low vision are organized into four perspectives: personal and professional, clinical, functional, and changing. General topics included in the 18 chapters are psychosocial implications of low vision, independent living, literacy, physiology of the eye, causes and functional implications of visual impairment, optics and low vision devices, clinical services, functional vision assessment and education, selection and instruction of learning media, orientation and mobility for children and adults, needs and employment considerations for adults, and older adults with low vision. The editors close with predictions and recommendations for the future of services to children and adults with low vision. Appendices include a chart diagramming the visual effects of selected syndromes and diseases, a glossary, and a resources list of organizations, information sources, and sources of products and services. Available from: AFB Press, Customer Service, P.O. Box 1020, Sewickley, PA 15143. Phone: 800-232-3044. Fax: 412-741-0609. Publisher's web site:


Functional Evaluation --The Kansas Project for Children and Young Adults Who Are Deaf-Blind. (2000)Two questionnaires designed by the Kansas Project for Children and Young Adults Who Are Deaf Blind to help assess which students should be certified for deaf-blind services. The Functional Vision Evaluation consists of 15 questions addressing visual impairment, restricted activities, visual acuity, lighting conditions and learning situations. The Functional Hearing Evaluation consists of 13 questions addressing hearing impairment, special treatments required, restricted activities, use of amplification and classroom environment.


Functional Vision: Educating Students Who Have Visual Impairments with Other Disabilities: Chapter Twelve --Utley, Bonnie L.; Roman, Christine; Nelson, Gary L. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. (1998)This chapter presents two perspectives on the education of students who have visual impairments and other disabilities. One of the perspectives is guided by applied behavioral and ecological frameworks as they pertain to students with severe and multiple disabilities. The second perspective considers the implications of visual impairment with and without additional disabilities. Both perspectives share the same goals: to identify students in need of vision intervention and to improve the use of functional vision. Multiple factors to consider in the process of understanding and assessing a student's functional vision are described, including environmental contexts and the implications of the etiology of the student's vision loss. A number of assessment procedures are described as samples of the various models of assessment. An extensive reference list is provided.


Functional VISION: A Practitioner's Guide to Evaluation and Intervention --Lueck, Amanda Hall (Ed.) New York: AFB. (2004)Separated into three parts: Overview of Low Vision Care; Evaluation of Functional Vision; Intervention Methods. This book begins with an introduction to low vision services and describes frequently prescribed low vision optical devices. It then describes methods for assessment of functional vision and finally methods for developing structured intervention programs. Two chapters deal specifically with children with visual and multiple disabilities. One on evaluation methods, the other on intervention. A glossary and resource list are also included.


Functional Vision, A Bridge to Learning and Living [Videorecording]: Functional Vision Assessment --American Printing House for the Blind, Inc. Louisville, KY: American Printing House for the Blind, Inc. (2002) This video highlights the importance of assessing low vision needs and presents the basics of how such an assessment is accomplished. Topics include definitions of legal blindness, functional vision, and visual impairment. Also covered are optical devices and their applications, as well as the components of a low vision assessment, which includes the following: medical exam, clinical low vision evaluation, and functional vision assessment. Finally, the video examines the trans-disciplinary approach to assessment, and discusses the functional vision assessment report. Available from the American Printing House for the Blind, Inc. Phone: 800-223-1839. Catalog no. 1-30009-00. Publisher's web site:


Functional Vision Assessment and Instruction of Children and Youths with Multiple Disabilities --Erin, Jane N. New York, NY: AFB Press. From Foundations of Low Vision: Clinical and Functional Perspectives, Corn, Anne L. (Ed.), Koenig, Alan J. (Ed.), 1996. (1996) Chapter 10 describes the functional vision assessment and the instruction of children and youths with multiple disabilities. Describes the challenges professionals face in assessing vision when children have disabilities in addition to low vision that affect their ability to communicate and understand the world. Describes how to determine a child's best visual function, and how to adapt instructional planning accordingly. Describes how to monitor progress and make changes when needed. Describes the functional vision assessment including gathering background information, assessing near vision, distance vision, and evaluating field responses. Provides information on the approaches to instruction in the use of functional vision including how to select visual goals, and integrating visual goals into routines. Describes the importance of promoting and identifying functional and age appropriate activities to promote visual learning. No references are provided. Available from: AFB Press, Customer Service, P.O. Box 1020, Sewickley, PA 15143. Phone: 800-232-3044. Fax: 412-741-0609. Publisher's web site:


Functional Vision Assessment for Children who are Young and/or Multi-Disabled --Anthony, Tanni L. Denver: Colorado Department of Education. (1995)This paper stresses the importance of completing an accurate functional vision assessment (FVA) for children with multiple disabilities and reviews the following components of this type of assessment: (1) the philosophy of FVA, (2) the preparation process, (3) the unique assessment needs of children with multiple disabilities, and (4) assessment content and strategies. It is a condensed version of a prior publication from the "Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Blind/Visually Impaired Children," Stainton, L. & Lechelt, E. (Eds.), Edmonton, Canada, October 1993.


Functional Vision Assessments and Early Interventions --Torpor, Irene. New York: AFB Press. Essential Elements in Early Intervention: Visual Impairment and Multiple Disabilities. Deborah Chen (Ed.). (1999) Describes the process of functional vision assessment as a way to observe and assess an infant's ability to use vision for certain tasks under different conditions in both familiar and unfamiliar settings. Includes strategies for gathering background information and addresses the specific components of a functional vision assessment including vision acuity testing, eye movement, near-point vision, intermediate and distance vision, visual fields, color recognition, and environmental considerations. Intervention strategies and considerations are also discussed. An extensive reference list is provided. Most references do not appear to be to research articles. Publisher's web site:


Functional Vision - Learning to See: Volume II --Bailey, Brent. Terre Haute: Bailey Video Design. (1995)This video describes visual assessment and functional visual assessment. It provides practical suggestions for using assessment results to increase functional vision use. May be ordered by calling (800) 438-9832 or by writing BVD Promo Services, P.O. Box 930182, Verona WI 53593-0182. Available in Spanish.


Guide to Helping Young Children with Visual Impairments Make Better Use of Their Vision: Book 2 --Topor, Irene; Bailey, Brent R.; Houghton, Joan. Indiana State University: (1995)The purpose of this guide is to explore some of the differences between looking and seeing by reviewing vision tests, evaluations, and assessments. The information is organized in several sections: the facts; questions about vision; questions about vision tests, evaluations, and assessments; profiles of functional vision assessments; appendices with examples and resource information; and illustrations. The information is intended to help clarify visual functioning.


Guidelines for Identification and Assessment of Students with Visual Impairments --Hazekamp. --California Department of Education. Sacramento: California Department of Education. (1997)A major responsibility of the Department of Education is to provide leadership and assistance to administrators, parents, and staff in their efforts to improve educational programs for all students, including students with visual impairments. These guidelines have been developed by the Special Education Division of the Department to assist administrators, staff, and parents in improving the identification and assessment of students with visual impairments and the planning and provision of instruction and services to these students. These guidelines were adapted and published in 1989 by the American Foundation for the Blind as Program Planning and Evaluation for Blind and Visually Impaired Students: National Guidelines for Educational Excellence and are used extensively throughout the United States and in countries around the world. Included here is extensive material on identifying and assessing educational needs, as well as Appendices that include functional vision, functional vision of preschool children and visual acuity measurement assessments; guidelines to determine the appropriate reading medium for a visually impaired student; funding for specialized books, materials, and equipment; legal requirements from California Code of Regulations, Education Code; and resources for technical assistance. Copies are available for $10.00 plus shipping and handling from Bureau of Publications, Sales Unit, California Dept. of Ed., P.O. Box 271, Sacramento, CA 95812-0271; FAX (916) 323-0823.


Identifying Vision Impairments in Infants --Calvello, Gail. Parents and Visually Impaired Infants. Deborah Chen, Clare Taylor Friedman, Gail Calvello, PAVII Project. (1990)The purpose of this "how-to" paper is to (1) identify typical delays in early diagnosis of vision impairment, (2) describe physical indicators which constitute reasons to refer an infant to a pediatric ophthalmologist, (3) define terms used to describe vision loss, and (4) offer a format for conducting a functional vision screening for infants. Includes a functional vision screening checklist.


Interventions for Young Children with Visual Impairments and Students with Visual and Multiple Disabilities --Lueck, Amanda Hall; Heinze, Tony. New York: AFB Press. Functional Vision: A Practitioner's Guide to Evaluation and Intervention. Amanda Hall Lueck (Ed.). (2004) This book chapter emphasizes ways to promote the use of functinal vision within meaningful activities across typical environments. Starting with activities and programs for infants and moving through to the school age child, the chapter includes details about maximizing visual function through instruction. There are sample forms for analyzing daily routines and for determining a childs visual behaviors. Many instructional strategies are detailed in sidebars and include: Attributes of visual stimuli; Methods to Optimize Stimuli; Light Structuring; Light Pairing; and Special Strategies for Children With CVI. Publisher's web site:


ISAVE American Printing House for the Blind. (2000) ISAVE (Individualized Systematic Assessment of Visual Efficiency) is a functional vision assessment tool for use with sighted and visually impaired infants, the developmentally young and other difficult-to-test and severely physically impaired learners. The kit consists of text, protocols, and materials designed to help determine instructional entry level and programming strategies for visually impaired students. Article describes target population, chapter topics, and components. The ISAVE assessment tool is not available in DB-Link collection. Publisher's web site:


Low Vision: A Resource Guide with Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments --Levack, Nancy; Stone, Gretchen; Bishop, Virginia. Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, TSBVI. (1996) A comprehensive guide to low vision for teachers, service providers, and parents which provides up-to-date medical, optical, and technical information, and includes practical methodologies and adaptations. This guide contains information on functional vision evaluations, media assessments, and assessments for distinguishing between learning and visual disabilities, including guidelines for planning and implementation of programming that will enhance students' visual functioning. It describes common medical conditions, their treatments, and educational implications. It includes approaches to provide a least restrictive access to the visual environment for students with low vision. Also included is information on computer access and other electronic approaches to solve the challenges of low vision. The enhancement of the use of vision by students with multiple physical and/or mental impairments is discussed. Chapter headings: Assessment; Planning, Teaching and Evaluation; Adaptations; Medical Information Related to Visual Impairment; Physical Conditions, the Sensory Systems, and How They Affect Visual Performance; Psychosocial Implications of Visual Impairment. Two assessment masters for duplication are included: State of Texas Interagency Eye Examination Report and Observations for the Functional Vision Evaluation. The book may be ordered from Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, Business Office, 1100 West 45th St., Austin, TX 787-3494, (512) 206-9292. The price is $25.00. It is also available as a textfile on disk.


NTAC Vision Information: Materials and Resources NTAC.This binder contains a litany of materials and resources on vision information. Divided alphabetically by subject, it contains information ranging from acuity tests, functional vision assessment information, mobility training, orientation, questions to ask your specialist, to teaching functional vision behavior, and vision development from birth. Fact sheets provide information on touch cues, appropriate touch, tolerating touch, and creating a need to communicate.


Reliability of The CVI Range: A Functional Vision Assessment for Children with Cortical Visual Impairment [Doctoral Dissertation] --Newcomb, Sandra. College Park: University of Maryland. (2009) The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of the CVI Range (Roman-Lantzy, 2007), a tool used to conduct functional vision assessments of children with cortical visual impairment. The study assessed 104 children. All of the children had additional disabilities (22 had hearing impairment). Twenty-seven were tested by two examiners to determine inter-rater reliability; 20 were tested on two occasions to determine the test-retest reliability; and 57 were tested one time by a single examiner. The CVI Range had an internal consistency measure or alpha of .96. The inter-rater reliability coefficient was .98 and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .99. In addition, the CVI Range has two sections that are scored differently and the scores from the two sections were compared to determine if they provided similar scores and therefore similar implications for intervention. Kappa, or the index of agreement, for the two parts of the assessment was .88. Results of this study indicate that The CVI Range is a reliable instrument.


Research to Practice: Linking Functional Vision and Hearing Assessments, Learning Modalities, and Instructional Strategies --NTAC. Portland, OR: National Technical Assistance Consortium for Children and Young Adults Who Are Deaf-Blind. NTAC Topical Workshop, April 26-27, 2005, Portland, OR. (2005)This workshop was held April 26-27,2005. Notebook includes the agenda, a list of participants, and collected handouts from the speakers.


Screening for Hearing and Vision Loss --Arizona School for the Deaf-blind - ASDB. Tucson, AZ: Proceedings from a Workshop on Screening for Hearing and Vision Loss, ASDB, Tucson, AZ, Apil 30 - May 1, 1993. (1993)A series of papers on vision and hearing screening and assessment is collected. Subjects covered: normal visual development during the first three years, sequential visual functioning from birth to six years, communicating with children about vision, factors in vision loss, screening for and assessment of hearing loss and visual impairment, and strabismus and amblyopia.


Teleconference on Functional Vision: Factors to Consider in Augmentative and Alternative Communication Assessment and Implementation --Grotton, Carol. --Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bureau of Special Education, Instructional Support System of Pennsylvania. Gibsonia, PA: Distance Learning Center. (1996)This is a videotape of a teleconference held on January 31, 1996, and it is sign language interpreted for the deaf. The three topics treated by the presenters are optical visual skills, perceptual visual skills, and environmental concerns. A functional vision checklist is included in the discussion of how to provide adequate assessment and instruction for students who are not functionally blind. The team approach is emphasized. The intended audience is teachers of persons who are visually impaired. The video may be ordered from the Distance Learning Center, 5347 William Flynn Highway, Gibsonia, PA 15044-9644.


Vision Problems --Kapoor, Neera, O.D., M.S.; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J., O.D., Ph.D. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury. Jonathan M. Silver, Thomas W. McAllister, Stuart C. Yudofsky (Eds.) (2005)In this chapter, the authors discuss the prevalence and pathophysiology of vision problems and provide an overview of functional vision anomolies in patients with traumatic brain injury.


What Can Baby See?: Vision Tests and Interventions for Infants with Multiple Disabilities --Chen, Deborah. New York: AFB Press. (1996) This video identifies the importance of early identification of visual impairment in infants with severe and multiple disabilities. A pediatric optometrist demonstrates five common vision tests (checking ocular health, Cover-Uncover Test; Pupillary Response, Retinoscopy, Preferential Looking/Teller Cards, and the Visual Evoked Potential). It shows an early interventionist obtaining functional vision information with two infants who have both visual impairment and hearing loss through structured observation in the home and parent interview. Parents share their feelings about their infants' disabilities. Examples of selected interventions used in an infant program are provided. Includes a booklet. Available from: AFB Press, Customer Service, P.O. Box 1020, Sewickley, PA 15143. Phone: 800-232-3044. Fax: 412-741-0609. Publisher's web site:


What's Functional About a Functional Vision Assessment? --Topor, Irene L. INFORMATION UPDATES, vol. 5, no. 4, May/June 1994, pp. 1-4. (1994)This article defines a functional vision assessment and describes who needs vision assessment and why. It also describes an assessment and discusses several commercial tests which are available. Includes sample charts and definitions of terms.

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