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Interpreting with Deaf-Blind People - General

Interpreting with Deaf-Blind People - General

by DB-LINK on Sep 25, 2014
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ACHIEVING CULTURAL COMPETENCE: An Interview on Interpreters Working With Deaf-Blind People, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2009, 7. This is the text of an interview that Rhonda Jacobs conducted with Jamie Pope, Executive Director of the American Association of the Deaf-Blind, and Aimee Chappelow Bader, who has Usher Syndrome and is an adjunct assistant professor and ASL tutor with the Interpreter Training Program at Johnson County Community College in Kansas. Rhonda talked with Jamie and Aimee about deaf-blind culture, interactions with deaf-blind people, and how interpreters can integrate knowledge of deaf-blindness into their work.


ANATOMY OF AN INTERPRETATION/ Jacobs, Rhonda. National Task Force on Deaf-Blind Interpreting and the CATIE and MARIE Centers. 2013, 1 hour, 31 minutes, 48 seconds.This webinar, geared toward interpreter educators and working interpreters, with or without experience working with people who are deaf-blind, will build upon the previous webinar, A Process Model for Deaf-Blind Interpreting, and examine an interpretation done by a Deaf interpreter working with a Deaf-Blind individual, looking at how various aspects of an interpretation are done, particularly the incorporation of visual information. For participants who did not participate in the previous webinar, there will be a brief review of the process model of interpreting previously presented.  This document is available on the web at:


ASLEEP, LAST ROW, ON THE LEFT/ Jacobs, Rhonda. 2011, 3. This article is about interpreting for deaf-blind individuals. It defines back-channeling (how we let the person who is talking to us know that we are listening, we are following and what our reactions are to what they are saying while they are saying it.) Examples of back-channeling, equal access and the primacy of touch for deaf-blind individuals are described. RID VIEWS, vol. 28, #3, Summer 2011, pp. 20-22


BEING IN TOUCH: Communication and Other Issues in the Lives of People Who Are Deaf-Blind, Atwood, Alan A.; Clarkson, John Dennis; Laba, Charlene R. -- Gallaudet University: 1994, vii, 80. This book is aimed at interpreters, teachers, and other professionals who work with deaf-blind people. It provides basic information about deaf-blindness and devotes a large section to interpreting. The appendices cover organizations, agencies, and schools serving deaf-blind people; training for teachers and interpreters; manual and Braille alphabets; and characteristics of vision loss; recommendations for those looking for more information.


CASE OF THE MISSING NECKLINE / Jacobs, Rhonda. 2011, 1. This one page fictional narrative illustrates the effect of an interpreter's neckline on a deaf-blind person's comprehension of an interpreted question. It is written from the perspective of a deaf-blind person with tunnel vision. RID VIEWS, Vol. 28 Issue 1,Winter 2011, p. 19. 


COMMUNICATION FACILITATORS (CFs), granda, aj. 2007, 2. This brief article describes Communication Facilitators (CFs). CFs relay visual information from video phone calls to deaf-blind individuals using tactile or close vision sign. The Deaf-Blind Service Center (DBSC) in Seattle offers deaf-blind people the opportunity to use DBSC's video phone to make Video Relay Service (VRS) calls or a direct call using one of DBSC's CFs. Publisher's web site: THE DEAF-BLIND AMERICAN, April-June 2007, vol. 46, # 2, pp. 27-28.


DEAFBLIND INTERPRETING GUIDELINES National Task Force on Deaf-Blind Interpreting (NTFDBI) (2014) Adapted from Interpreter Guidelines by Sharon Barrey Grassick, Communication Specialist, Western Australia, 2001. These guidelines provide interpreters and interpreting agencies with an awareness of the unique needs of DeafBlind people and their individual interpreting needs. It is important to remember that support needs vary greatly among DeafBlind people.  


DEAF-BLIND CONNECTIONS, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2009, 2. "Deaf-Blind Connections" is a column about deaf-blind interpreting and the deaf-blind community. This edition is the inaugural column. It describes why such a column is important for interpreters by using the concept of contact in improvisational dance as a metaphor. Contact is a much larger and all-encompassing concept than touch because it implies communication--a give and take with another person--at a given moment in time. Information about resources for interpreters and news from the national Task Force on Deaf-Blind Interpreting is also included. VIEWS, vol. 25, #7, July 2008, pp. 44-45.


DEAF-BLIND CONNECTIONS: Interpreting as Möbius Strip, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2008, 2.  A Möbius strip is a continuous loop of ribbon such that if you follow your finger along one side, you will end up on the other side and then back again to where you originally started. In this edition of the column "Deaf-Blind Connections," the author uses a Möbius strip as a metaphor to explore the interplay of factors that make up deaf-blind interpreting. These factors include the skills needed to do deaf-blind interpreting, but also factors related to human dynamics such as interpersonal demands (the interactions of individuals present in the interpreting situation) and intrapersonal demands (psychological and physiological factors within the interpreter that have an effect on the interpreting event). RID VIEWS, vol. 25, #8, Fall 2008, pp. 44-45.


DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING, American Association of the Deaf-Blind. 2007. This special issue focuses on interpreting for individuals who are deaf-blind. Publisher's web site: THE DEAF-BLIND AMERICAN, April-June 2007, vol. 46, #2.


DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING: Interpreters' Use of Negation in Tactile American Sign Language, Frankel, Mindy A. 2002, 11. This article describes a study performed to document prevalent signs used during the interpreting process, specifically relating to negation in tactile sign language. The project focused on American Sign Language (ASL) to tactile ASL only. The author intended to document specific signs that pertain to the way deaf interpreters express negation in deaf-blind interpreting. The results of this research are intended to help achieve greater understanding of what seasoned interpreters are doing in the deaf-blind field today. SIGN LANGUAGE STUDIES, vol. 2, #2, Winter 2002, pp. 169-180.


DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING: Many Paths on the Road, National Task Force on Deaf-Blind Interpreting. 2008, 4. This article presents a list of some of the opportunities for interpreters to expand their skills around interpreting for deaf-blind people. The task force is seeking to gather and compile lists of all available training, volunteer and educational resources and opportunities. RID VIEWS, vol. 25, #2, February 2008, pp. 11-13.


DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING 101. Jacobs, Rhonda, CI and CT. 1997, 1. Provides basic guidelines and points to keep in mind when interpreting with a deaf-blind person. Includes information about: vision and use of space; clothing; background; lighting; pacing; identifying; visual environment; language use and fatigue. VIEWS, vol.14, #11, December 1997, p. 8.


DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING WORKBOOK: Student Readings and Worksheets, 2nd Edition/ Washington State Deaf-Blind Citizens Inc. -- Washington State Deaf-Blind Citizens: 2005, 101. This workbook is an updated version of the original 2000 book. It includes information designed to help more people become prepared and have confidence in their ability to work with deaf-blind individuals. The workbook is divided into 12 units focused on communication techniques, interpreting environments, considerations for types of vision loss, hearing loss or limited language capacities, tactile interpreting, code of ethics, deaf-blind culture, and adaptive equipment. It is intended as a supplement to classroom and community discovery. To order contact: Washington State Deaf-Blind Citizens. Publisher's web site:


DEPRIVATION OF INFORMATION, O'Malley, Drena. -- Deafblind International: no date, 4. Describes the causes of deprivation of information for deaf-blind people and provides suggestions for interpreters and communication partners. Causes include an inability to assimilate incidental information (information gained by looking around a room or by listening while uninvolved in a situation), censorship (e.g., when interpreters or family members consciously or subconsciously censor information due to lack of skills or because they think the information will be unpalatable or politically incorrect), inconsistency in the use of communication forms. All of these things may lead to relationship difficulties, learning stagnation, and withdrawal. Solutions include improved training for sign language interpreters, development of paraphrasing skills, more recognition of the separate and unique needs of deaf-blind people, and recognition of deaf-blind culture.


DEVELOPMENT OF TRAINING FOR DEAF INTERPRETERS TO WORK WITH DEAF VISUALLY IMPAIRED PEOPLE, Reed, Sarah. -- Canadian Deafblind and Rubella Association: 2003, 7. This is the text of a workshop presentation given at the 13th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. The paper describes the use of Deaf interpreters to work with Deaf visually impaired people. 13th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, August 5-10, 2003, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada


DISCOURSE GENRE AND LINGUISTIC MODE: INTERPRETER INFLUENCES IN VISUAL AND TACTILE INTERPRETED INTERACTION, Metzger, Melanie; Fleetwood, Earl; Collins, Steven D. 2004, 18. In this article, the authors investigate visual and tactile ASL-English interpreters' influences on interactive discourse through an interactional sociolinguistic analysis of videotaped, interpreted interactions. They examine the participation framework of each of the interactions to determine whether the interpreters' utterances influence the interaction. For example, how do interpreters' code choices align them with the Deaf-sighted, Deaf-Blind, or hearing participants? How do interpreters create footings within their renditions and self-generated nonrenditions? Based on a growing body of research on tactile signed languages and on signed language interpretation of dyadic interaction such as student-teacher meetings, medical interviews, and multiparty genres such as classroom discourse, they examine ways in which discourse genre and linguistic mode contribute to those interpreter-generated influences. Publisher's web site: Sign Language Studies, Vol. 4, No. 3, Winter 2004, pp. 118-136.


DOING IT ON A PLATFORM / Jacobs, Rhonda. 2012, 2. Describes strategies for interpreting platform presentations and events for people who are deaf-blind. RID VIEWS, vol. 29, #3, Summer 2012, pp. 19-20.


DRESSED TO DISTRESS? Potterveld, Tara, M.A., IC/TC, CI and CT; Lambert, Marylouise, B.A., OTC. 2001, 2. This article discusses the need for interpreters to be more aware of the possibility that the deaf client may also have low vision needs. Discusses the need for interpreters to wear clothing that contrasts with their skin color. Good lighting and the interpreter’s utilization of smaller signing space may also be of assistance to the limited vision client. The article includes additional guidelines for interpreting for deaf-blind people. Available in Spanish. This document is available on the web at: SEE/HEAR, vol. 6, #1, Winter 2001, pp. 9-10.


EFFECTIVE USE OF INTERPRETERS IN GENERAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION, Best, Carah; Lieberman, Lauren; Arndt, Katrina. 2002, 5. This article discusses the use of interpreters in physical education classes. It provides teachers with ways to maximize their collaboration with educational interpreters and, as a result, improve communication with, and understanding for, their deaf and deaf-blind students. Discusses the psychomotor abilities of deaf children, communication responsibilities, and qualities of a good interpreter. JOPERD, vol. 73, #8, October 2002, pp. 45-50.


FROM IGNORANCE TO UNDERSTANDING: ADVENTURES IN DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING, Van Dusen, Robin. 2009, 3. This article is about how the experiences Robin has had in the six months particularly at the Seabeck camp have changed her as a person and pointed her professional life in a new direction. After this experience she knows that she will always be involved in deaf-blind interpreting. This document is available on the web at: DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, vol. 16, #2, Spring 2009, pp. 8-10.


A GUIDEBOOK FOR INTERPRETERS: Making Accommodations for Individuals with Dual Sensory Impairments, Morgan, Susanne. -- Nebraska Deaf-Blind Project: 2004, 13. Provides a basic overview of the various modes of sign language interpreting used by students who are deaf-blind. Includes information about environmental accommodations to enhance visual reception, and techniques and strategies for close or low vision interpreting, reduced peripheral fields interpreting, and for tactile sign language and fingerspelling. Written explanations are accompanied by photos showing the right way (thumbs up icon) and wrong way (thumbs down icon) to do things. This same content is also available in Word format on a CD. This document is available on the web at:


GUIDELINES: Practical Tips for Working and Socializing with Deaf-Blind People, Smith, Theresa B. -- Sign Media, Inc: 2002, 288. This second edition of Guidelines includes expanded chapters on topics such as tactile sign language, interpreting, conversation and physical environment. New information and more examples are included. Three new chapters include: Support Service Providers; Authority, Power and Control; and Meetings. The book is intended for people who know Sign Language, who are already experienced in "deafness" and in interacting with Deaf people, and who want to know more about "deaf-blindness" and interpreting for Deaf-Blind people. Professional interpreters, student interpreters, and anyone who wants to communicate and/or work more effectively with Deaf-Blind people will benefit from reading this book. May be ordered from Sign Media, Inc., 4020 Blackburn Lane, Burtonsville, MD 20866. Phone: (800) 475-4756. Cost: $24.95 Publisher's web site:


HANDS DOWN, AN IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS COME / Jacobs, Rhonda, CI and CT. 2012, 1.

This one page article explores the possibility of creating a "Hands Down Rule" -- every 10-15 minutes of interpreting with an individual who is deaf-blind at conferences, meetings and other situations. everyone puts their hands down for two minutes (interpreters, the presenters and the deaf-blind participants). RID VIEWS, vol 29, #4, Fall 2012, p. 18. 


IMPLICATIONS OF DEAFBLINDNESS ON VISUAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES: Considerations for Audiologists, Ophthalmologists, and Interpreters, Hyvarinen, Lea. 2007. This article describes strategies that ophthalmologists and audiologists can use when assessing the vision or hearing of individuals who are deaf-blind. It also describes how these professionals can work with interpreters during the assessment process.


IMPLICATIONS OF VISION LOSS ON THE INTERPRETING PROCESS, Foxman, Leslie; Lampiris, Angela . -- Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc. 1999, 14. This article provides in-depth information regarding sign language interpreting for individuals who are Deaf-Blind. It discusses the multi-dimensional nature of the interpreting role and that teamwork is an essential part. The interpreter is responsible for the transmission of substantial amounts of visual and auditory information and must consider a variety of factors prior to and during their assignment. The authors draw on 10 years combined experience in the field of deaf-blindness, as well as personal observance and informal discussions with consumers and professionals in the field. There is a comprehensive look at the accommodations that must be made prior to and during an interpreting assignment, especially when working with individuals who require tactile or restricted space interpreting. Five categories of vision loss are referenced and their impact on the interpreting process. The authors include topics to consider prior to an assignment, such as personal hygiene, responsibilities, and clothing choices. Recommendations are also listed upon arrival to the assignment, including expectations during the meeting. Proceedings of the 16th National Convention of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf


INTERPRETING AND TRANSLITERATING FOR PERSONS WHO ARE DEAF-BLIND, Raistrick, Kathryn L., (Ed.) no date, 13. This brochure is an aid for those who are interpreting for persons who are deaf-blind. Interpreting for this population requires specialized competence and responsibilities. This is an effort to delineate these skills, as well as to discuss considerations for the interpreter both before and at the assignment. Modes of communication for persons who are deaf-blind vary widely due to the etiology of the deaf-blindness, the severity of the vision and hearing loss, as well as the age of onset. A comprehensive listing is included of most of the modes of communication used in the United States with persons who are deaf-blind. This list is not exhaustive, however, it will give the interpreter an overview of some of the varieties of communication options available. The information would also be of value to persons hiring interpreters as well as consumers. Few individuals know how demanding interpreting for persons who are deaf-blind can be. Appropriate preparation by all parties before an interpreting situation could make the interpreting situation much more effective.


INTERPRETING AND WORKING WITH DEAFBLIND PEOPLE, Bar-Tzur, David,, 7/26/2000, 1-9. (2000). Offers advice to interpreters working with persons who are deafblind. Covers four areas: meeting and negotiating needs, communication, guiding, and interpreting. Online version has links to additional information. Publisher's web site: This document is available on the web at: 


INTERPRETING FOR INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE DEAF-BLIND: Standard Practice Paper -- Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc. 2007, 3. The amount and type of vision and hearing a person has determines the type of interpreting that will be most effective. This document provides an overview of interpreting for individuals who are deaf-blind including communication modes, environmental considerations, professional standards for interpreters, and a brief description of support service providers (an additional service that an individual who is deaf-blind may request). This document is available on the web at:


INTERPRETING FOR DEAF-BLIND STUDENTS: FACTORS TO CONSIDER, Petronio, Karen. 1988, 4. Ten deaf-blind college students were interviewed to find out what they need and want from sign language interpreters. This information was combined with findings from observations of many deaf-blind interpreting situations. The focus of this article includes the following four areas: 1) types of signing; 2) modifications to the signing; 3) visual information that needs to be conveyed; 4) other factors that will influence deaf-blind interpreting situations. ERIC number EJ 377 543. AMERICAN ANNALS OF THE DEAF, July 1988, pp. 226-229.


INTERPRETING FOR THE DEAF-BLIND, Smithdas, Robert J. 1979, 4. This editorial describes the many variables that affect direct, person-to-person communication with deaf-blind individuals and a movement underway by interpreters to define the rights of interpreters while interpreting for deaf or deaf-blind people during meetings and conferences. Since interpreting involves sending and receiving information, it is logical that deaf-blind people should have rights relative to interpreting. He provides a list of suggestions for a future consideration for the establishment of a definitive code of rights relative to interpreting. NAT-CENT NEWS, October 1979, pp. 1-4.


INTERPRETING FOR THE STUDENT WITH A COCHLEAR IMPLANT / Young, Barbara. 2009, 3. This article addresses advances in cochlear implant technology and how the increase in the number of young cochlear implant users has created a need for educational interpreters to become more knowledgeable about effectively working with this population of students. The article details some of the issues inherent in working with students who use cochlear implants and offers recommendations for interpreters. RID VIEWS, Summer 2009, pp. 20-22 


INTERPRETING STRATEGIES FOR DEAF-BLIND STUDENTS: An Interactive Training Tool for Educational Interpreters [DVD & Manual], Morgan, Susanne, MA, CI, CT. -- Ohio Center for Deafblind Education, University of Dayton: no date, 104 pages [DVD 60 minutes] This curriculum is designed to train interpreters to work with students who are deaf-blind. It consists of a 60-minute DVD and a print manual. There are 8 modules covering legal issues related to interpreting and deaf-blind education, interpreting methods (sign language, voicing using an FM system, typing, Braille), environmental and sign language modifications, and strategies to help interpreters work effectively with teachers and students to make sure that deaf-blind students have access to educational content and the classroom environment. It describes how various types of visual impairments (low vision, blurred vision, central field loss, reduced peripheral vision, fluctuating vision) affect the interpreting process and describes sign language modifications such as tracking, tactile sign language (one-handed and two-handed), and print on palm. Each module is followed by a self-check quiz. The narrated DVD provides numerous examples of the content covered by the manual and additional opportunities for self-testing. There is no date listed on either the DVD or the manual, but the curriculum was released in 2005. Cost: $15.00. Copies may be ordered from the Ohio Center for Deafblind Education (OCDBE), 4795 Evanswood Drive, Suite 300, Columbus, OH 43229. Phone: 614-785-1163. E-mail:


AN INTERVIEW ON DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING WITH CHAD METCALF, Jacobs, Rhonda, CI and CT. 2008, 3. This article is an interview of a deaf-blind person and his use of interpreters. RID VIEWS, vol. 25, #2, February 2008, pp. 1,15,16.


KNOWLEDGE MEETS SKILL: A Primer on Vocabulary, Jacobs, Rhonda. RID VIEWS, vol. 30, #1, Winter 2013, pp. 16-17, 38. (2013) This article is a basic primer on vocabulary for interpreters that may be used in deaf-blind contexts and some signs that are commonly used by deaf-blind people.  It is not all-inclusive and some vocabulary, especially related to technology, is constantly evolving.


MANUAL AND SPOKEN COMMUNICATION, Prickett, Jeanne Glidden. -- AFB Press: 1995, pp. 261-286. This chapter examines language-based communication as a mode of interaction for students who are deaf-blind. There are 3 main sections. The first section covers sign language and includes information about tactile sign language, modifications of sign language for visually impaired persons, visual and tactile tracking, sign language instruction guidelines, considerations for choosing ASL or Signed English for a child, and fingerspelling. The section on fingerspelling includes details about reception modes for tactile fingerspelling (palm-over-palm, palm-in-palm, birdcage). The second section very briefly addresses spoken communication including speech training, auditory training, and Tadoma. The third section covers interpreting for deaf-blind people, working with interpreters, and finding interpreters. Hand in Hand: Essentials of Communication and Orientation and Mobility for Your Students Who Are Deaf-Blind, Vol I. Kathleen Mary Huebner, Jeanne Glidden Prickett, Therese Rafalowski Welch, & Elga Joffee (Eds)




PATIENCE OR PRESENCE: A Reflection on Qualities/ Jacobs, Rhonda. 2010, 2. The author reflects on the qualities an interpreter should have in order to work with people who are deaf-blind. She writes that often the perspective interpreters assume or have been taught is that patience is an essential quality. Instead of patience, which can have a negative connotation, she suggests another way to look at an interpreter's way of being and doing is to have a quality of presence, to be "with" - to be with what is happening, to be with people where they are and how they are. RID VIEWS, vol. 27, #2, Spring 2010, pp.20-21 


PROCEEDINGS OF AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON DEVELOPMENTS AND INNOVATIONS IN INTERPRETING FOR DEAFBLIND PEOPLE, Peckford, Bob (Ed.) 1999, 83. The third annual conference of its kind aimed at identifying what was happening in interpreting for deafblind people in Europe and to share ideas, information and materials on this subject. Three key issues were examined in a comparative study during the conference; the role and function of the interpreters, models of interpreter training, and the rights of deafblind people to interpreters. Three overview papers are presented addressing the interim results from that study in the areas listed above. Additional technical papers review recent research, developments and models of training are included in the proceedings as well. Held at Leeuwenhorst, The Netherlands, June 1999


A PROCESS MODEL FOR DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING, Jacobs, Rhonda. -- Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf: 2005, 23. This paper addresses the need for a theoretical model of interpreting for people who are both deaf and blind, lays out a version of a process model based on the works of Colonomos, Cokely and Seleskovitch, and then expands this model, viewing it through the lens of Deaf-Blind interpreting. A checklist is included as an appendix for use in interpreter training. Journal of Interpretation


A PROCESS MODEL FOR DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING/ Jacobs, Rhonda. National Task Force on Deaf-Blind Interpreting and the CATIE and MARIE Centers. 2013, 1 hour, 29 minutes and 34 seconds. This webinar, geared toward interpreter educators and working interpreters, with or without experience working with people who are deaf-blind, will present A Process Model for Deaf-Blind Interpreting as published in the 2005 Journal of Interpretation, updated to include work published since 2005. Participants examine a process model of interpreting as it relates to deaf-blind interpreting, considering such elements as visual information, message analysis, contextual analysis, linguistic modifications and back-channeling.  This document is available on the web at:


PRO-TACTILE: THE DEAFBLIND WAY (VLOG #1) / Nuccio, Jelica,granda, aj, 2013, 9 minutes, 44 seconds.

This online vlog is one in a series of online vlogs describing what Pro-Tactile means within the DeafBlind community. "Pro-Tactile" in this context means the value of touch for purposes of communication. During this conversation, Jelica and aj give each other tactile feedback the whole time, tapping on each other’s legs, and hands, and shoulders, and arms with one hand and simultaneously signing with their other hand. This document is available on the web at:


PRO-TACTILE: THE DEAFBLIND WAY (VLOG #2) / Nuccio, Jelica; granda, aj. 2013, 5 minutes. This online vlog is the second  in a series of online vlogs describing what Pro-Tactile means within the DeafBlind community.  "Pro-Tactile" in this context means the value of touch for purposes of communication. During this brief presentation, Jelica and aj discuss the meaning of back-channeling as the number one most important Pro-Tactile (PT) practice.  This document is available on the web at:


PRO-TACTILE: THE DEAFBLIND WAY (VLOG #3) / Nuccio, Jelica; granda, aj. 2013, 5 minutes, 35 seconds. This online vlog is the third in a series of online vlogs describing what Pro-Tactile means within the DeafBlind community. "Pro-Tactile" in this context means the value of touch for purposes of communication. During this brief presentation, Jelica and aj talk about the difference between haptics and Pro-Tactile.  This document is available on the web at:


PRO-TACTILE: THE DEAFBLIND WAY (VLOG #4) / Nuccio, Jelica; granda, aj. 2013, 5 minutes, 17 seconds. This online vlog is the fourth in a series of online vlogs describing what Pro-Tactile means within the DeafBlind community.  "Pro-tactile" in this context means the value of touch for purposes of communication. During this brief conversation, Jelica and aj continue the conversation regarding backchanneling begun on a previous vlog in order to respond to questions they received about the practice.  This document is available on the web at:


QUALITY AND ETHICS IN INTERPRETING: A Three-Year Project with Swedish Consumers, Edenas-Battison, Christina S., M.A. -- Canadian Deafblind and Rubella Association: 2003, 10. This is the text of a workshop presentation given at the 13th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. The paper describes a three-year project with consumers of interpreting services in Sweden. The project aims to improve the quality of interpreting, especially from an ethical perspective. 13th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, August 5-10, 2003, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada


SIGN LANGUAGE WITH PEOPLE WHO ARE DEAF-BLIND: Suggestions for Tactile and Visual Modifications, Morgan, Susie. 1998, 5. This article provides helpful hints about techniques that enhance comfort and ease other concerns when signing with deaf-blind people. Topics discussed include: appearance and attire, distance and seating, signing space, hand positioning, conveying the message, tactile adaptations, describing the full environment, environmental factors and concerns, consumer feedback, and team interpreting. This document is available on the web at:
 DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, vol.6, #1, Fall 1998, pp.3-7


TIPS FOR INTERPRETERS WORKING WITH DEAF-BLIND CONSUMERS, Reis, Rossana. 2007, 3. This article suggests tips (Do's and Don'ts) for interpreters who work with deaf-blind consumers. Publisher's web site: THE DEAF-BLIND AMERICAN, April-June 2007, vol. 46, # 2, pp. 15-17


TIPS FOR STUDENTS WITH USHER SYNDROME: Information Sheet, Baumgarner, Juli. no date, 1. Lists accommodations and adaptations that can be made in a classroom for students with Usher Syndrome. Includes suggestions for lighting, seating, classroom environment, materials, sign language techniques, orientation and mobility, and self-advocacy. Available at:


TOUCH OF COMMUNICATION, Morgan, Susanne. 2002, 2. This article provides information on deaf-blind interpreting. Describes common requests by deaf-blind people for their interpreting needs. Describes the need to show-up early to ascertain individual preferences, such as seating arrangements, the need for tactile sign, and the type of hearing/vision loss experienced by the individual. NADMAG, vol. 2, #3, August/September 2002, pp. 26, 28.


VIDEO EXAMPLES OF DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING/ National Task Force on Deaf-Blind Interpreting and the CATIE and MARIE Centers. 2013.The following links are examples of Deaf-Blind Interpreting created by the National Task Force on Deaf-Blind Interpreting and the CATIE and MARIE Centers. 


VIDEO RELAY SERVICES FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE DEAF-BLIND, Gasaway, Mark A. 2007, 5. This article discusses the results of a survey sent to the AADB-L listservs and other major listsevs for deaf-blind people. It asked 5 questions pertaining to the use of the video relay service interpreting. Publisher's web site: THE DEAF-BLIND AMERICAN, April-June 2007, vol. 46, # 2, pp. 22-26


WHAT IS VISUAL INFORMATION? Jacobs, Rhonda. 2007, 5. There are many aspects and levels of visual information: places and things; mood, tone and affect; social and interactional processes; printed material; and what stands out as unusual. This article focuses on mood, tone and affect, as these factors often provide the unsaid 'sense' of a speaker and are often left out of an interpretation. Publisher's web site: THE DEAF-BLIND AMERICAN, April-June 2007, vol. 46, #2, pp. 7-11


"WHAT'S MY ROLE?": A Comparison of the Responsibilities of Interpreters, Intervenors, and Support Service Providers, Morgan, Susanne, M.A., C.I., C.T. -- Teaching Research Division: 2001, 3. This article compares and contrasts the various roles and responsibilities of interpreters, intervenors, and support service providers. It compares each in table form in a variety of categories. Categories range from age of clients, ethics, certifications required, confidentiality issues, and professional training. This document is available on the web at: DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, vol. 9, #1, Fall 2001, pp. 1-3.


WORKING WITH THE DEAF-BLIND COMMUNITY, Weiss, Diane Goldberg. 1993, 10. Weiss discusses the diversity of needs interpreters meet in working with the deaf-blind community. The article notes the differing amounts of residual hearing or sight people who are deaf-blind have. It also explains the different modalities used by deaf-blind communicators and the different methods of communicating depending on the deaf-blind person's preferences. The importance of setting and logistics of any interaction is also pointed out. NAT-CENT NEWS, vol. 24, no. 1, September 1993, pp. 29-39.

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