- Selected Topics
- What is Deaf-Blindness
- Definitions of Deaf-Blindness
- Causes of Deaf-Blindness
- National Child Count & Demographics
- Communication Overview
- Early Communication
- Prelinguistic Communication
- Object Communication
- Symbolic Communication
- Sign Language
- Accessing the General Curriculum
- Auditory Training
- Calendar Systems
- Concept Development
- Daily Living Skills
- Environmental Considerations
- Harmonious Interactions
- Lilli Nielsen and Active Learning
- Orientation & Mobility
- Play & Recreation
- Social Interactions
- Tactile Strategies
- Universal Design for Learning
- van Dijk Approach
- Identification & Referral
- Early Intervention
- Assessment Overview
- Assessment Tools and Instruments
- Alternate Assessment
- Program Planning
- IEP Development
- IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)
- Assistive Technology
- History of Deaf-Blind Education
- Self Determination
- Person Centered Planning
- Postsecondary Education
- Independent Living
- Customized Employment
- Sex Education
- Adult Services
- Intervener Services
- Support Service Provider
- Personnel Development & Training
- Interpreting for Deaf-Blind Individuals
- Interpreting for Deaf-Blind Individuals - Annotated Bibliography
- Training Resources
- Family Resources
- Personal Narratives - Family Stories
- Personal Narratives
- Art & Writing
- Cochlear Implants
- Functional Hearing
- Functional Vision
- Sensory Integration
- Central Auditory Processing Disorder/Auditory Neuropathy
- CHARGE Syndrome Webcasts and Presentations
- CHARGE Syndrome
- Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS)
- Cortical Visual Impairment
- Retinal Degenerative Disease
- Usher Syndrome
- Applications of Technology
- Research to Practice
- Topical Overviews
- Practice Perspectives
- Tools For TA
- Information Packets
- Deaf-Blind Perspectives
- Webinar Recordings
- NCDB eNews
- Archived Webinars
Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) VIEWS Articles
Visit the VIEWS archive page to locate articles.
ASLEEP, LAST ROW, ON THE LEFT, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2011, 3. This article is about interpreting for deaf-blind individuals. It defines back-channeling (how we let the person who is talking to us know that we are listening, we are following and what our reactions are to what they are saying while they are saying it.) Examples of back-channeling, equal access and the primacy of touch for deaf-blind individuals are described. RID VIEWS, vol. 28, #3, Summer 2011, pp. 20-22
CASE OF THE MISSING NECKLINE, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2011, 1. This one page fictional narrative illustrates the effect of an interpreter’s neckline on a deaf-blind person’s comprehension of an interpreted question. It is written from the perspective of a deaf-blind person with tunnel vision. RID VIEWS, vol. 28 Issue 1,Winter 2011, p. 19
CHALLENGES IN DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING: Then and Now, Jolley, Carolyn, CI. 1997, 1. This article describes the growth in the field of interpreting services for deaf-blind people. Increased demands in an increasing array of settings have created the need to use new skills. Flexibility is necessary to provide a broad range of services to meet the unique and diverse communication needs of individuals who are deaf-blind. RID VIEWS, vol.14, #11, December 1997, p.16
COMMUNITY COMMITMENT TO NURTURING DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETERS, Galeota, Marthalee. 1997, 1. This article outlines three programs available in the Seattle area for Deaf-Blind people and interpreters. The first is a mentoring program offered through the Deaf-Blind Service Center in Seattle. The second is a five-credit course on Deaf-Blind Interpreting that has been added as a required course for all interpreting students. This class is now offered each year during the fall quarter and is co-taught by a Deaf-Blind person and an interpreter. The third offering is the week-long retreat hosted by Seattle Lighthouse for Deaf-Blind people. It is planned, lead and directed by Deaf-Blind people. RID VIEWS, vol.14, #11, December 1997, p.22
A DAY IN THE LIFE OF THE STAFF INTERPRETERS AT THE HELEN KELLER NATIONAL CENTER, Hecker-Cain, Jane; Rubinberg, Ilissa. 2005, 2. Describes the challenges of coordinating interpreting services at a center-based program that includes consumers and staff who are deaf-blind, Deaf, blind and hearing. Includes the logistics of interpreting in a variety of individual and group settings as well specific adaptive equipment and techniques for facilitating individual styles and preferences. RID VIEWS, vol. 22, #11, December 2005, pp. 35-36
DEAFBLIND DAY AND OTHER UPDATES, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2013, 1. This article describes the first-ever DeafBlind Day held on August 8, 2013, a pre-conference event leading up to the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) conference in Indianapolis, Indiana. It was a day to bring together DeafBlind people, interpreters and those who work with both groups to learn together in a shared series of workshops. Other updates are included. RID VIEWS, vol. 31, #1, Winter 2014, p. 2
DEAF-BLIND CONNECTIONS, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2008, 2. "Deaf-Blind Connections" is a column about deaf-blind interpreting and the deaf-blind community. This edition is the inaugural column. It describes why such a column is important for interpreters by using the concept of contact in improvisational dance as a metaphor. Contact is a much larger and all-encompassing concept than touch because it implies communication--a give and take with another person--at a given moment in time. Information about resources for interpreters and news from the national Task Force on Deaf-Blind Interpreting is also included. RID VIEWS, vol. 25, #7, July 2008, pp. 44-45.
DEAF-BLIND CONNECTIONS: Deaf-Blind Interpreting in Court, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2009, 3. Outlines what interpreters need to know when interpreting in court for deaf-blind persons. Topics include a discussion of the types of expertise that interpreters need (deaf-blind vs. legal); how to prepare for interpreting in court; how to prepare the court (e.g., materials that should be sent in advance to an attorney or court clerk); how to request and select interpreters who meet the needs of a specific deaf-blind individual; meeting in advance with court personnel; and preparing the deaf-blind consumer. RID VIEWS, vol. 26, #1, Winter 2009, pp. 46-47, 49.
DEAF-BLIND CONNECTIONS: Interpreting as Möbius Strip, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2008, 2. A Möbius strip is a continuous loop of ribbon such that if you follow your finger along one side, you will end up on the other side and then back again to where you originally started. In this edition of the column "Deaf-Blind Connections," the author uses a Möbius strip as a metaphor to explore the interplay of factors that make up deaf-blind interpreting. These factors include the skills needed to do deaf-blind interpreting, but also factors related to human dynamics such as interpersonal demands (the interactions of individuals present in the interpreting situation) and intrapersonal demands (psychological and physiological factors within the interpreter that have an effect on the interpreting event). RID VIEWS, vol. 25, #8, Fall 2008, pp. 44-45.
DEAF-BLIND CONNECTIONS: "May I Pet the Dog?", Jacobs, Rhonda. 2009, 2. This edition of the column "Deaf-Blind Connections" lists 20 tips for interpreters to use when working with deaf-blind people who have guide dogs. They are points of etiquette and protocol that, when known and observed, can allow the deaf-blind person, the interpreter, and the guide dog to each do their job as part of a team. RID VIEWS, vol. 26, #2, Spring 2009, pp. 45-46.
DEAF-BLIND CONNECTIONS: Report from the National Task Force on Deaf-Blind Interpreting Face-to-Face Meeting, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2009, 2. This is a report of a meeting of the National Task Force on Deaf-Blind Interpreting, held July 31-August 1, 2009 in Philadelphia. The purpose was to identify goals and activities for the current year. A facilitated discussion resulted in identifying the following items as most salient and suitable to the mission and work scope of the task force: (1) infusion (having deaf-blind people included as part of the spectrum of consumers) versus specialized training; (2) faculty not having expertise; (3) outdated resources; (4) how current interpreters who work with deaf-blind people are being trained; (5) viewing the paradigm of deaf-blind interpreting as a setting rather than a special topic; and (6) further training of faculty, staff, and instructors. RID VIEWS, vol. 26, #4, Fall 2009, pp. 44-45.
DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING, McNamara, Jamie. 1997, 1. The growth of the number of Deaf-Blind people and the thriving Deaf-Blind community feeds the demand for interpreters who are skilled with a variety of communication preferences, sensitive to cultural issues, and open to adapt to diverse needs. Interpreters are encouraged to get involved with the local/state Deaf-Blind organization to gain valuable skills and knowledge. Specific information about volunteering at the national convention of American Association of the Deaf-Blind is given. RID VIEWS, vol.14, #11, December 1997, p.10
DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING: Many Paths on the Road, National Task Force on Deaf-Blind Interpreting. 2008, 3. This article presents a list of some of the opportunities for interpreters to expand their skills around interpreting for deaf-blind people. The task force is seeking to gather and compile lists of all available training, volunteer and educational resources and opportunities. RID VIEWS, vol. 25, #2, February 2008, pp. 11-13.
DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING 101, Jacobs, Rhonda, CI and CT. 1997, 1. Provides basic guidelines and points to keep in mind when interpreting with a deaf-blind person. Includes information about: vision and use of space; clothing; background; lighting; pacing; identifying; visual environment; language use and fatigue. RID VIEWS, vol.14, #11, December 1997, p.8
DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING-INTERNATIONAL STYLE, Gregg, Carol, CT. 1997, 1. Describes the experiences of an American interpreter during an international conference for people who are Deaf-Blind held in Columbia, South America. RID VIEWS, vol.14, #11, December 1997, p.13
DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING: SETTINGS, SPECTRUMS AND SUCH, Morgan, Susanne, CI and CT; Olsen, Debbie, CI and CT. 2006, 2. The authors are suggesting that the field of interpreting broaden their view to the full spectrum of users who wish to access their services which includes deaf-blind interpreting. RID VIEWS, vol.23, #2, February 2006, pp. 30-31.
A DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVE, McGann, Richard. 2005, 2. This article is about interpreting for consumers who are deaf-blind written by an adult who is deaf-blind. Briefly touches on the difference between interpreting for deaf and deaf-blind consumers; the difference between tracking and tactile interpreting; invites volunteers to assist at 2006 AADB conference as SSPs, interpreters and guides. RID VIEWS, vol. 22, #11, December 2005, pp. 1, 54
DEAF-BLIND POWER NOW, Pellerin, Joan. 2011, 1. This one page article advocates for individuals who are deaf-blind to be included and not isolated. The model of support service providers (SSPs) needs to expand. In addition, hearing interpreters and deaf interpreters must work together in the furthering of deaf-blind individuals access to the varied offerings of daily life. RID VIEWS, vol. 28, #2, Spring 2011, p. 22
DEFINITIONS OF ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION STYLES WITH DEAF-BLIND PEOPLE, Devich, Julie. 1997, 1. In this article several styles of communication used by Deaf-Blind people are examined. When interpreting for a Deaf-Blind person it is necessary to match their unique communication style with an accurate form of interpreting. Some issues to consider are knowing the field of available vision, knowing if the consumer is right or left-handed, and being able to use devices such as microphones or a TTY. RID VIEWS, vol.14, #11, December 1997, p.15
THE DILEMMA OF DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING, Sandefur, Ruth, RSC, OIC:V/S. 1997, 1. This article highlights some of the differences between the services offered by special support providers (SSP) and Deaf-Blind Interpreters. The author coordinated interpreting services for meetings during the 1996 National Association of the Deaf Biennial Convention in Portland, Oregon, and uses situations from the convention to illustrate the different tasks of SSP and Deaf-Blind interpreters. RID VIEWS, vol.14, #11, December 1997, p.20
DOES DISABILITY REALLY NEED TO BE FIXED?, Clark, John Lee. 2009, 1. This one page article is written by a deaf-blind adult. He discusses medical advances and the desire by some in the medical profession to eradicate deafness. The author celebrates his deafness as well as blindness and believes it is an important fabric of human life. RID VIEWS, vol. 26, #4, Fall 2009, p. 20
DOING IT ON A PLATFORM, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2012, 1. Describes strategies for interpreting platform presentations and events for people who are deaf-blind. RID VIEWS, vol. 29, #3, Summer 2012, pp. 19-201998-0231
A GLOSSARY OF SOME COMMUNICATION METHODS USED WITH DEAF-BLIND PEOPLE, Cooper, Sheryl B. 1997, 1. Contains descriptions of 13 methods of communication used by Deaf-Blind People. Includes: Print on Palm; Tadoma; Small Sign Language; Tactile Sign Language; Tactile Fingerspelling; FingerBraille; Alphabet Glove; Alphabet Card; Braille Alphabet Card; Tellatouch; TeleBraille and Braille Tape. Includes illustrations. RID VIEWS, vol.14, #11, December 1997, p.6
HANDS DOWN, AN IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS COME, Jacobs, Rhonda, CI and CT. 2012, 1.
This one page article explores the possibility of creating a "Hands Down Rule" -- every 10-15 minutes of interpreting with an individual who is deaf-blind at conferences, meetings and other situations, everyone puts their hands down for two minutes (interpreters, the presenters and the deaf-blind participants). RID VIEWS, vol 29, #4, Fall 2012, p. 181998-0185
"I DON'T DO DEAF-BLIND", Jacobs, Rhonda, CI and CT. 1997, 1. The purpose of this article is to recruit interpreters to become skilled in working with Deaf-Blind people. The shortage of Deaf-Blind interpreters is discussed. The author encourages interpreters to attend an American Association of the Deaf-Blind convention or attend a Deaf-Blind workshop or training opportunity to experience this type of interpreting. Also listed are eight additional ways to get started in the field. RID VIEWS, vol.14, #11, December 1997, p.1
INTERPRETING FOR THE STUDENT WITH A COCHLEAR IMPLANT, Young, Barbara. 2009, 3. This article addresses advances in cochlear implant technology and how the increase in the number of young cochlear implant users has created a need for educational interpreters to become more knowledgeable about effectively working with this population of students. The article details some of the issues inherent in working with students who use cochlear implants and offers recommendations for interpreters. RID VIEWS, Summer 2009, pp. 20-222008-0163
AN INTERVIEW ON DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING WITH CHAD METCALF, Jacobs, Rhonda, CI and CT. 2008, 3. This article is an interview of a deaf-blind person and his use of interpreters. RID VIEWS, vol. 25, #2, February 2008, pp. 1,15,16.
IT'S HOW YOU SEE IT... OR FEEL IT, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2012, 2. This two page article discusses how framing gives us our perspective and "how we interpret the world." Bio-cultural diversity is explained and the recent creation of Pro-Tactile in the deaf-blind community is highlighted. RID VIEWS, vol. 29, #2, Spring 2012, pp. 21-22
KNOWLEDGE MEETS SKILL: A Primer on Vocabulary, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2013, 3. This article is a basic primer on vocabulary for interpreters that may be used in deaf-blind contexts and some signs that are commonly used by deaf-blind people. It is not all-inclusive and some vocabulary, especially related to technology, is constantly evolving. RID VIEWS, vol. 30, #1, Winter 2013, pp. 16-17, 38
NATIONAL SUPPORT SERVICE PROVIDER PILOT PROJECT ROLLS OUT NEW CURRICULUM, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2010, 2. This article highlights the importance of support service providers (SSPs) for individuals who are deaf-blind and the establishment of the National Support Service Provider Pilot Project. In 2008, there was a federal appropriation that allowed the Deaf-Blind Service Center (DBSC) of Seattle, WA to begin Phase I with the development of a curriculum for training SSPs as well as training people who are deaf-blind to learn more about how to work with SSPs. A copy of the curriculum is available for free download from the DBSC website in regular print, large print, and Braille 1 and 2. A tactile publication was also produced and presented to approximately 40 individuals who are deaf-blind. Phase II will include multi-media tools such as PowerPoint presentations to go with each section of the curriculum, DVDs and other instructional materials. The funding received was enough to cover the technology tools, but not enough to cover training trainers, so more funding may be needed to make this happen. RID VIEWS, vol. 27, #3, Summer 2010, pp. 18-19
NCIEC CENTERS COLLABORATE ON DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING MENTOR PROGRAM, National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers. 2011, 1. This one page article describes a mentoring program developed to enhance the knowledge and skills of working interpreters in the area of interpreting for deaf-blind people. It includes feedback and gratitude expressed by the participants. RID VIEWS, vol. 28, #4, Fall 2011, p. 44
NEWS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL FRONT, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2013, 2. In 2011, the World Association of Sign Language Interpreters (WASLI) established the Deafblind Interpreting Committee to address the global lack of qualified interpreters to work with Deafblind people. The committee completed a document titled, "Deafblind Interpreter Education Guidelines" and the content is described in this article. The guidelines are available at http://wasli.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/279_wasli-db-interpreter-education-guidelines-1.pdf. A few additional updates on international news are provided. RID VIEWS, vol. 30, #2, Spring/Summer 2013, pp. 24-252006-0284
ON BELAY....BELAY ON: Close Encounters In Deaf-Blind Interpreting, Galasso, Patrick, CI and CT. 2006, 2. The author describes his experience interpreting on a cruise of the Western Caribbean with a group of people who are deaf and blind. He emphasizes throughout the article that people who are deaf-blind can enjoy life fully. RID VIEWS, vol.23, #2, February 2006, pp. 20-21.
PATIENCE OR PRESENCE: A Reflection on Qualities, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2010, 2.
The author reflects on the qualities an interpreter should have in order to work with people who are deaf-blind. She writes that often the perspective interpreters assume or have been taught is that patience is an essential quality. Instead of patience, which can have a negative connotation, she suggests another way to look at an interpreter's way of being and doing is to have a quality of presence, to be "with" - to be with what is happening, to be with people where they are and how they are. RID VIEWS, vol. 27, #2, Spring 2010, pp. 20-212006-0283
QUEST FOR SELF-IMPROVEMENT LEADS TO DEAF-BLIND SYMPHONY, Chambers, Diane L., BS, IC/TC. 2006, 2. The author describes her ongoing desire to improve her interpreting skills with deaf-blind individuals. She states besides proficiency in expressive and receptive skills, deaf-blind interpreting calls for insightful thinking and discerning judgment. It requires action that is outside the realm of "regular" interpreting tasks, for it requires being the "ears" and "eyes". She describes her role over the past several years and finishes the article explaining her volunteering experience at Seabeck Conference Center in Seattle, WA for a week as an interpreter/SSP. RID VIEWS, vol.23, #2, February 2006, pp. 6-7.
TACTILE INTERPRETING - ARE YOU READY? Downey, Jodene. 1997, 1. In this article various types of tactile interpreting are depicted illustrating possible work assignments an interpreter might encounter. Typing skills may be required if clients use laptop computers that have Braille output devices. Issues such as transportation needs and regulations; multiple roles; and team support for longer interpreting assignments, all need to be considered and planned for in advance so the Deaf-Blind person's needs will be met. Opportunities for obtaining more experience in these areas are listed. VIEWS, vol.14, #11, December 1997, p.12
TAKE THE HANDS-ON APPROACH, Bull, Elizabeth J., CT. 2008, 1. This brief article encourages interpreters to take on assignments with deaf-blind individuals. RID VIEWS, vol. 25, #2, February 2008, p. 8.
TEAM STRUCTURE FOR A DEAF-BLIND STUDENT, Dunn, Betsy J., CSC. 2000, 2. This article provides examples and role definitions for support team members for a deafblind student. Roles of the student, parent, administrator/case manager, primary support teacher, interpreters, vision teacher, and mobility instructor are defined in detail. Various methods to define, establish and communicate the role of each team member to general educators are provided. Sample topics to address in a guidebook for inclusion of a deafblind student are included. RID VIEWS, vol. 17, #3, March 2000, pp. 16-17.
TIPS ON MINIMIZING FATIGUE OR PAIN DURING TACTILE COMMUNICATION, Damato, Nadia. 2014, 1. The author of this article is a tactile ASL user. She provides tips to minmize the pain for DeafBlind people during Tactile ASL (TASL). Tips on receiving Tactile Communication as well as tips on providing Tactile Communication are listed. RID VIEWS, vol. 31, #1, Winter 2014, p. 36
UPDATES FROM THE NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2011, 2. This brief update covers the development and implementation of a Deaf-Blind Interpreting Mentorship Program as well as a workshop presentation at the 2011 RID National Conference on behalf of the Task Force on "Establishing Rapport with Deaf-Blind Community Members". RID VIEWS, vol. 28, #4, Fall 2011, pp. 18-19
UPDATES FROM THE NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON DEAF-BLIND INTERPRETING, THE RID DEAF-BLIND MEMBER SECTION AND THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF THE DEAF-BLIND, Jacobs, Rhonda. 2010, 2. This two page article covers updates from several agencies supporting individuals who are deaf-blind including interpreters who work with deaf-blind people as well as a consumer agency. RID VIEWS, vol. 27, #4, Fall 2010, pp. 18-19