Person Centered Planning Bibliography

by DB-LINK on May 1, 2011
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This is a partial list of materials on this topic available from the DB-LINK Catalog Database.  If you have additional questions, please contact us via email:

Updated 2011


Can Person-Centered Planning Be Empirically Analyzed to the Satisfaction of All Stakeholders? --Halle, James W.; Lowrey, K. Alisa. RESEARCH & PRACTICE FOR PERSONS WITH SEVERE DISABILITIES, vol. 27, #4, Winter 2002, pp. 268-271. (2002)This commentary provides feedback on Steve Holburn's 2002 article on person- centered planning. It expands on four main issues that emerged. These issues being: 1) a disconnect between frequent mis-application of person-centered planning and widespread adoption, 2) a conceptual conundrum between process and outcome, 3) the characterization of the evolutionary paradigm, and 4) methodological alternatives for evaluating person-centered planning.


Can Person-Centred Planning Fulfill a Strategic Planning Role? : Comments on Mansell & Beadle-Brown --Felce, David. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 2004, 17, 27-30. (2004) This is one of a series of articles about Person Centered Planning (PCP) in the context of the British 2001 White Paper Valuing People. It asserts that British policy appears to regard PCP as underpinning strategic planning. This commentary accepts the logic of PCP for planning for individuals but believes there is still a place for population- based norms based on available epidemiological data.


Creating Positive Outcomes for Deafblind Youth and Young Adults : A Personal Futures Planning Transition Model --Nelson, Betty. RE:VIEW, vol. 36, #4, Winter 2005, pp. 173-180. (2005)Transition planning to assist students with severe disabilities to move from school to a positive adult future is of great concern for the young people and their families and friends. For more than a decade, the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) within the U.S. Department of Education has researched quality of life issues in transition planning. Traditionally, teachers who are trained in multi-impairments, hearing impairments, or visual impairments have filled the gap between the number of teachers needed in the field of deafblindness and the number of teachers trained specifically in the field. Personal futures planning is a person-centered creative planning process used by both HKNC and PATHfinders of Alabama to provide a framework of information about the background, abilities, preferences, and visions for the future of the individuals with whom they are working. The first federal grant evaluation team to review PATHfinders of Alabama labeled it a project of national significance. Since then, PATHfinders experiences have provided an opportunity for systems change. Alabama has extended services to include high-functioning deafblind individuals and individuals who are visually impaired.


Defining Person Centeredness : Results of Two Consensus Methods --Schwartz, Allen A.; Jacobsen, John W.; Holburn, Steve C. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 2000, 35 (3), 235-249. (2000) An expert panel and consensus workshops identified eight general hallmarks and 23 related indicators of person-centered approaches in planning and providing services and supports to individuals with mental retardation. Indicators for following features of person-centered plans were identified: simple and understandable; based on a unique vision for the person; focused on improvements in quality of life; flexible and recurring; and subject to evaluation. Team features include: egalitarian team process; contributory and committed team process; flexibility of process; communication within team; person-guided process; and review of team outcomes. Organizational features include: involvement of consumers, families, and communities in decision making; support and empowerment of staff; organizational support for person-centered goals; resource flexibility to support people's lives; an outcome orientation; an action/change orientation; a culture of self-assessment, learning, growing, and continuously expanding possibilities; and people are living individualized, quality lives. The applicability of person-centered features and indicators to improving services and supports is discussed.


Developing Person-Centered IEPs --Keyes, Maureen W.; Owens-Johnson, Laura. Intervention in School and Clinic, Vol. 38, No. 3, January 2003, 145-152. (2003) Individualized Educational Programs (IEPs) must be reviewed and revised at least annually as stipulated by the Individuals with Disabilities education Act (IDEA). Reauthorization of IDEA in 1997 included specific requirements for students with disabilities and their families to become full-fledged participants on IEP teams. The change signaled a movement from an institution- centered to a person-centered approach. This article outlines person-centered planning (PCP) methods to assist parents and professionals in this process. There is a brief review of the literature summarizing parents' and professionals' opinions about the value of the IEP. Then, two methods of person- centered planning are explained and illustrated via two case studies. Ways that PCP methods may improve overall outcomes for students in special education programs are discussed.


Focusing on the Fundementals: A Person-Centered Approach to Programming -- Elliston, Sharon. DBI REVIEW, #33, Janurary-June 2006, pp. 16-17. (2006) The author follows up on the article in the Review last time with a progress report on exciting work in Canada at the Independent Living Residences for the Deafblind in Ontario.


How Science Can Evaluate and Enhance Person-Centered Planning --Holburn, Steve. RESEARCH & PRACTICE FOR PERSONS WITH SEVERE DISABILITIES, vol. 27, #4, Winter 2002, pp. 250-260. (2002) This article argues that the popular, but at times, misapplied approaches of person-centered planning can be remedied through scientific approaches. Person-centered planning is described in the context of an evolving disabilities culture that is selecting practices that achieve the values of the new paradigm. Operationalizing outcomes that constitute aspects of quality of life (QOL) can be challenging, but the main obstacle to an empirical analysis of person-centered planning appears to be reliable implementation of its complex process. Resolution of these problems is seem as a cutting edge for expanding the applied research technology in assisting people with disabilities to achieve the values to which they aspire.


How the Use of Personal Future Planning is Under Influence of the Culture and Social Conditions in Each Individual Country --Andersen, Vibeke. Brantford, Ontario: Canadian Deafblind and Rubella Association. 13th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, August 5-10, 2003, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. (2003) This is the text of a workshop presentation given at the 13th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. The paper describes a Scandinavian way of working with personal future planning.


The Impact of Person Centered Planning on the Content and Organization of Individual Supports --Flannery, K. Brigid; Newton, Stephen; Horner, Robert H.; Slovic, Roz; Blumberg, Richard; Ard, William R. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, Fall 2000, 23:2, 123-137. (2000) Person Centered Planning (PCP) is an approach to designing support that is guided by the individual with disabilities (or his/her advocates) that receives support, builds from personal strengths and vision, and results in practical action plans. While PCP procedures have been advocated strongly and adopted widely, there is little empirical documentation of the impact of the approach on the quality of resulting plans or the perceived impact of support on the lives of people with disabilities. The present study provides an analysis of the impact that the use of PCP had with ten transition-age students receiving special education services. Interviews with eight educators and ten students/parents indicated that PCP training was associated with (a) increased use of PCP procedures, (b) increased number of written goals supported outside the school- time, (c) increased number of non-paid individuals scheduled to provide support, and (d) higher satisfaction with the planning process by educators and students/parents. This pilot study is a pre-experimental design with several limitations, including the absence of a control group, self-selected participants, and the use of self report rather than direct observation. Despite the limitations, the authors feel that the results contribute to the knowledge about the impact of PCP when implemented on a broad scale. The data support an association between PCP training and increased use of PCP procedures, a widening of times when support was planned, an expansion of the number of people proposed to provide support, and increased satisfaction with planning process.


Inclusion : Using Person Centered Planning Strategies to Bring Dreams to Reality --Consacro, Donna; Hiscutt, Susan; Steele, Nancy. Costa Mesa, CA: 8th International CHARGE Syndrome Conference, July 26-29, 2007, Costa Mesa, CA. (2007)PowerPoint Presentation. Defines inclusion and person-centered planning, describes tools, offers case study example, describes an exemplary program and collaborative teaming, and offers strategies and helpful suggestions. Includes a list of resources.


Lifestyle Quality and Person-Centered Support : Jeff, Janet, Stephanie, and the Microboard Project --Malette, Paul H. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Person- Centered Planning: Research, Practice, and Future Directions, Holburn & Vietze, Eds. (11/16/2006)The study detailed in this chapter is a qualitative investigation of a person-centered approach known as microboards. A Microboard is a small group of committed family and friends who join together with a person to create a a small nonprofit society to address the person's support needs in an empowering and customized fashion. Interviews, observations, and a review of documents from each organization revealed that the staff and organizational characteristics substantially influenced the positive lives of the focus persons. Two central features of the organization were congruent with a person- centered approach and responsive organizations: 1) the willingness to change and 2) the inclusion of people with disabilities and their families in the organization's philosophy statement and day-to-day operations. The author contends that this study has contributed to a growing body of research and perspectives that suggest restructuring disability support on person-centered rather than system-centered principles.


Little Book About Person Centered Planning --O'Brien, John (Ed.); O'Brien Connie Lyle (Ed.) Toronto: Inclusion Press. (1998)This book is a collection of previously published articles by leaders and designers of person centered planning, a process used to assist people with disabilities who rely on service providers, to make informed choices about their futures. The compilation includes articles published over the past eighteen years representing an evolution of the person centered planning process . The book is designed to give practitioners several different options when conducting and implementing a person centered plan. Additional systems used to provide support are discussed including MAPS, PATH and support circles. Available from Inclusion Press ,, 24 Thome Crescent, Toronto, Ontario Canada M6H 2S5, TEL: (416) 658-5363 FAX: (416) 658-5067. Publisher's web site:


Overcoming the Barriers : Moving toward a service model that is conducive to Person-Centered Planning --Magito-Mclaughlin, Darlene; Spinosa, Thomas R.; Marsalis, Michael D. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Person-Centered Planning: Research, Practice and Future Directions, Holburn and Vietze, Eds. (2002)Barriers to person-centered planning exist within traditional service models. These barriers included managing conflicting person-centered and system-centered priorities, individualizing plans while serving large numbers of people, providing adequate staffing and transportation supports, and coordinating services across teams and environments. In an effort to overcome these barriers, the authors created an alternative model of service delivery that was designed to be more conducive to person-centered values, methods and outcomes. Eight people with developmental disabilities and their support staff participated in a program evaluation study aimed at evaluating the methods and outcomes of two different program models, traditional and alternative. The participants were put in matched pairs and observation data collected over a 5-7 day period was compared and analyzed. Program evaluation data suggested that participants achieved a variety of valued outcomes if they experienced 1) a smaller residential environment with community-based supports; 2) a single team of clinical, administrative, and direct support staff; and 3) enhanced transportation and staffing supports. Participants who received traditional supports received traditional outcomes. The authors admit that the study has several limitations including the absence of observational reliability; the quasi-experimental design lacks the rigor and control of a true experiment; and the study's brief duration. However, the study identifies ways of evaluating and improving service delivery models to further enhance the attainment of valued outcomes.


Person-Centered Planning : Research, Practice, and Future Directions --Holburn, Steve Ph.D. (Ed.); Vietze, Peter M. Ph.D. (Ed.) Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. (2002) The book takes a look at the concept of person-centered planning from various perspectives. It is divided into five sections: Person- Centered Planning in Context, Changes in Organizational Culture, Preference Assessment and Program Evaluation, Challenging Behavior, and Training and Policy. Readers will discover concrete ways in which person-centered planning improves the lives of individuals with disabilities, explore research that validates the effectiveness of person-centered planning, get instruction on assessing an individuals preferences, learn how person-centered planning can reduce challenging behavior, and find professional development strategies for those adopting person-centered planning. Supported by quantitative and qualitative research, this book discusses both the challenges and benefits of person-centered planning for individuals with various disabilities and provides strategies for making it work. Publisher's web site:


Person Centered Planning --Indiana Deafblind Services Project. Terre Haute: DEAFBLIND FOCUS, vol. 15, no. 1, Spring 2004, pp. 1-5. (2004) This issue of Deafblind Focus includes two articles on person centered planning. One describes a family's personal experience with Person Centered Planning and their teenage son's transition into life outside of school. The other article describes the evolution of Person Centered Planning and it's use with transition children and adolescents. It describes five Person Centered Planning approaches: Essential Lifestyle Planning, Individual Service Design, Personal Futures Planning, Making Action Plans (MAPS), and Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope (PATH). A list of additional references and resources is included.


Person-Centered Planning : Practices, Promises, and Provisos --Rasheed, Saleem A.; Fore, Cecil; Miller, Sidney. Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, Vol. 28, Number 3, Spring 2006, 47-59. (2006) The purpose of this article is to synthesize the current information in the area of person-centered planning. The article investigates issues in the areas of analyses of various approaches, similarities and differences of approaches, implementation of person-centered planning processes, and advantages and limitations of person-centered planning. The implementation of person-centered planning requires change and flexibility among state educational planners. local and regional school officials, teachers and ancillary personnel, community support agencies and their personnel, and parents from the traditional manner in conducting the planning process for people with disabilities.


Person-Centered Planning : Characteristics, Inhibitors, and Supports --Everson, Jane M.; Dalun Zhang. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 2000, 35(1), 36-43. (2000)This article describes a study that used a focus group to explore the perspectives of 9 participants engaged in a specific person-centered planning model, personal futures planning. Several themes emerged from the data of the focus group, including: (a) evolution of person-centered planning circles or teams; (b) inhibitors to the person-centered planning process; (c) supports to the person-centered planning process; and (d) longitudinal satisfaction with person-centered planning activities and outcomes. Specific examples and quotes given by participants of the focus group are included, along with discussions and implications for additional research.


Person-Centered Planning in Two Culturally Distinct Communities : Responding to Divergent Needs and Preferences --Trainor, Audrey A. CAREER DEVELOPMENT FOR EXCEPTIONAL INDIVIDUALS, vol. 30, #2, July 2007, pp. 92-103. (2007)Person- centered planning (PCP) is a recommended practice in developing and implementing individualized futures plans of and by youth and adults with disabilities. Yet, little is known about the cultural responsiveness of PCP, a salient issue because values and beliefs about transition differ across and within groups. Community connectors, facilitators of futures planning in two culturally distinct areas (a Spanish-speaking, socioeconomically depressed urban area and a suburb of English-speaking people from middle- and uppersocioeconomic backgrounds), were interviewed regarding their implementation of Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope and their responses to the preferences, strengths, and needs of families. Person-centered planning was effective in addressing transition-related concerns and obstacles to collaboration identified by community connectors, who adapted this model to address perceived community needs.


Person Centered Plans Can Help Students Build Self-Advocacy Skills --Rhodes, Larry. PEPNET PERSPECTIVES, Spring 2011, pp. 4-5. (2011)This article highlights three tools often used in person-centered planning (PCP). The particular tools share a common set of values and beliefs, which make them effective for empowering and increasing communication skills of students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The article includes a section on selecting the right tool for the individual student. There is also a section on resources on person-centered planning. Available on the web:


A Plan Is Not Enough : Exploring the development of person-centered teams -- Sanderson, Helen. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Person-Centered Planning: Research, Practice, and Future Directions, Holburn and Vietze, Eds. (2002)This chapter describes action research focusing on the implementation of person centered plans for two young adults with severe disabilities. The research concluded that, in order for the plan to be implemented and continued, the plan needs to be viewed as part of the team's culture - "the way we do things around here" - rather than an extra piece of work. Six key questions were identified for teams that want to implement person-centered plans and to develop a person- centered team. These questions acknowledge that continual learning on the part of the team is required. This includes learning more about the focus person, the way the team was implementing the plan, and how the team worked together.


Planning Futures a la Carte - Effective Ways to Experience Person Centered Planning and Building New Worlds - Students in Transition from High School to Adult Life --Berg, Clara; Mejia, Arnie. 14th DbI World Conference on Deafblindness Conference Proceedings, September 25-30, 2007, Perth, Australia. (2007)This is text of a workshop presentation given at the 14th DbI World Conference on Deaf-Blindness. This presentation is describes different ways to support children, young adults and adults who are deafblind to be productive members in their community and serve as an example of well being and enjoying a happy life.


Whose Life is it Anyway? : A Look at Person-centered Planning and Transition Richmond, VA: Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Education. (2001) This CD is a self-paced instructional program about person-centered planning. Topics covered include circles of support, the PATH process, and MAPs as they apply to developing transition plans for individuals with disabilities. The format includes video clips, text, audio, and self-study activities. This item is not available at DB-LINK. Order from VCU-RRTC, PO Box 842011, Richmond, VA 23284- 2011. The cost is $49.99. Make checks payable to Virginia Commonwealth University. Or contact Roberta Martin at 804-827-0737 (voice) or 804-828-2494 (TTY). FAX: 804-828-2193. Email:

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