Inclusion and Children Who Are Deaf-Blind - Bibliography

by National Consortium On Deaf-Blindness on Jun 30, 2013
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This is a partial list of materials on this topic available from the DB-LINK Catalog Database.  If you have additional questions, please contact us via email:

Updated 3/2015


Collaborative Teaming to Support Participation in Inclusive Education Settings --Romer, Lyle T.; Byrne, Andrew R. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Welcoming Students Who Are Deaf-Blind into Typical Classrooms - Facilitating School Participation, Learning, and Friendships. Norris G. Haring and Lyle T. Romer (Eds.). (1995) Chapter 8 is divided into three sections.  Section one contains the authors' synthesized definition of a collaborative team and examines the factors that have both promoted the emergence of collaboration and interfered with its fruition in North American education over the past two decades.  The second section is devoted to a presentation of the authors' findings from an innovative project that used collaborative teams to increase the inclusion of students with deaf-blindness in typical education settings.  The third section presents recommendations for the continued use of collaborative teams to support the inclusion of students with deaf-blindness and developmental disabilities.


Competencies for Paraprofessionals Working With Learners Who Are Deafblind in Early Intervention and Educational Settings --Riggio, Marianne; McLetchie, Barbara A.B. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind. (2001) These competencies address the knowledge and skills that a paraprofessional must have in order to assist in implementing quality programs and to enhance the quality of life for learners who are deafblind.  The term paraprofessional is used to describe anyone who helps a teacher carry out the early intervention or educational program for a child who is deafblind  (eg, intervenors, interpreters-tutors, paraeducators, assistants, and teachers aides).  The competencies are the result of a collaborative process involving families, university personnel trainers, teachers, therapists, parents, paraprofessionals, practitioners, and administrators of state deafblind projects in the U.S.  Available from Public Relations and Publications Department, Perkins School for the Blind, 175 N. Beacon St., Watertown MA  02472.  Phone: 617-972-7328.  Fax: 617-972-7334. Publisher's web site:


Competencies for Training Interveners to Work with Children and Students with Deafblindness --Alsop, Linda. Logan, UT: SKI-HI Institute. (2004) These are recommended knowledge and skill competencies necessary for interveners who work one-on-one with children and students who are deafblind. They are the result of numerous consultations with practitioners, specialists, and researchers in the field of deafblindness. The competencies are organized under 8 standards reflecting specific knowledge and skill areas. Within each standard, competencies are grouped according to whether they are core competencies (represent the recommended knowledge base in deafblindness) or child-specific (reflect application of skills that are specific to a child or student who is deaf-blind). Available on the web:


Connections : Facilitating Social Supports for Students with Deaf-Blindness in General Education Classrooms --Goetz, Lori; O'Farrell, Nora. JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & BLINDNESS,  vol. 93, #11, November 1999, pp. 704-715. (1999) This article describes a three-component package to facilitate social supports for students who are deaf-blind in general education classes and discusses the rationale for and importance of its use.  It also presents case examples of the application of social support strategies to four students with deaf-blindness who are served in general education or deaf education classes.


Creating Socially Supportive Environments for Fully Included Students Who Experience Multiple Disabilities --Hunt, Pam; Alwell, Morgen; Farron-Davis, Felicia; Goetz, Lori. --San Francisco State University. JASH, vol. 21, #2, 1996, pp.53-71. (1996) This investigation analyzes the effectiveness of an intervention designed at San Francisco State University to facilitate the social inclusion of three students who experience significant physical and intellectual challenges and for two students with dual sensory impairments.  An individualized intervention package was used to foster communication and social acceptance of fully included students and their nondisabled peers.  Interaction patterns were assessed quantitatively.  Interactive partnerships


Deafblindness and the Role of the Intervener --SKI-HI Institute. Logan, UT: SKI-HI Institute, Utah State University. (2010) This packet contains the following materials: a CD-ROM containing a PowerPoint presentation called "Deafblindness and the Role of the Intervener in Educational Settings"; a hard copy of the same PowerPoint presentation; a DVD called "Deafblindness and the Intervener"; an article, previously published in Deaf-Blind Perspectives, called "Selecting an Intervener for a Student Who Is Deafblind"; a copy of "Competencies for Training Interveners to Work with Children and Students with Deafblindness";  a copy of "The Intervener in Early Intervention and Educational Settings for Children and Youth with Deafblindness," previously published by NTAC; a copy of "Specialization Knowledge and Skill Set for Paraeducators Who Are Interveners for Individuals With Deaf-Blindness; a booklet called "Interveners in the Classroom: Guidelines for Teams Working With Students Who Are Deafblind"; and a fact sheet called "Educational Interveners for Children Who Are Deafblind."  Availalbe for $30.00 from SKI-HI.  Contact Fran Payne  435/797-5591


Educating Students Who Are Deafblind --Prickett, Jeanne Glidden; Welch, Therese Rafalowski. Baltimore: Paul Brookes Publishing Co. Educating Students Who Have Visual Impairments with Other Disabilities, S. Z. Sacks and R. Silberman (eds.) (1998) The presence of a vision loss in combination with a hearing loss results in the distinct disability of deaflblindness.  Because this disability greatly compromises or eliminates easy access to information from the two distance senses, its impact is greatest on learning, communication, and social interaction. Chapter five examines the various forms of deafblindness.  Understanding these forms aids instructors in supporting the most appropriate communication options and instructional strategies for the unique needs and skills of individual students. Learning about deafblindness, especially through teaching or other involvement with students who are deafblind, brings about tremendous respect for the efforts required of and expended by these individuals daily in order to establish and maintain relationships with others in a complex world.


Effectiveness of an Intervener Model of Services for Young Deaf-Blind Children --Watkins, Susan; Clark, Thomas; Strong, Carol; Barringer, Donald. AMERICAN ANNALS OF THE DEAF, vol. 139, no. 4, 1994, pp. 404-409. (1994) Project Validation of the Intervener Program (VIP) studied and documented the effectiveness of the Intervener Service Model which provides the services of a paraprofessional (intervener) to families of young children who are deaf-blind.  The intervener provides auditory, visual, and tactile stimulation for the child and helps the child develop interactive behaviors instead of isolated, defensive, or self-stimulatory behaviors.  The intervener also enables the parents to obtain much needed respite.  Project VIP obtained abundant quantitative and qualitative data on the effectiveness of the Intervener Service Model.  The data strongly support the need for Intervener Services for young children who are deaf-blind and their families.


Including Students with Deaf-Blindness in General Education Classes --Cloninger, C. J.; Giangreco, M. F. JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND BLINDNESS, May-June 1995, pp. 262-266. (1995) This article describes three field-tested approaches---COACH, VISTA, and CPS---to planning educational programs in an inclusive setting for students who are deaf-blind, making decisions about support services, and developing lesson accommodations to include the students in typical class activities. Available on the web:


Inclusion of Students Who Are Deaf-Blind : What Does the Future Hold? --Goetz, Lori. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Welcoming Students Who Are Deaf-Blind into Typical Classrooms - Facilitating School Participation, Learning, and Friendships.  Norris G. Haring and Lyle T. Romer (Eds.). (1995) In Chapter 1 Goetz defines inclusion and then goes on to discuss the development of appropriate curriculum, utilization of special services, making the most of collaborative teaming and student social interaction.


Inclusive Education of Young Children with Deaf-Blindness : Description of a Technical Assistance Model --Luiselli, Tracy Evans; Luiselli, James K.; DeCaluwe, Susan M.; Jacobs, Lisa A. Watertown, MA: New England Center for Deaf-Blind Services. ([1995]) This article describes the New England Center Pilot Project, a three year, federally funded program that focuses on the inclusion of young children with deaf-blindness in early childhood and regular education settings.  The primary focus of NECPP is to provide technical assistance and training to inclusive education settings.  The project also includes the assessment of classroom environments, the evaluation of a consultant feedback program, and the identification of the major topic areas that are addressed during the TEAM process.


Instructional Strategies for Learners with Dual Sensory Impairments in Integrated Settings --June Downing; Joanne Eichinger. JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR PERSONS WITH SEVERE HANDICAPS, 1990 Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 98-105. (1990) The article presents information on instructional strategies and the effective use of personnel needed for educating students with dual sensory impairments in integrated learning environments.  The authors contend that learners with dual sensory impariments can benefit from shared learning environments and from daily interactions with nondisabled peers.  Specific examples and practical intervention strategies to accommodate for the sensory losses are provided.  ERIC number EJ 416 513.


Intervenor Training --Olson, Joyce. DEAF-BLIND PERSPECTIVES, vol. 12, #1, Fall 2004, pp.1-5. (2004) Describes the underlying philosophy and structure of the intervenor training program at the British Columbia Provincial Outreach Program for Students with Deafblindness. Includes information about using simulations to promote an understanding of deafblindness, the unique role of the intervenor, key components of intervention (anticipation, motivation, communication, confirmation), the use of memory hooks to help students learning to be intervenors remember the goals and components of intervention, and practical aspects of training. Available on the web:


Nature Of Social Experiences Of Elementary Students With Deafblindness Educated In Inclusive Classrooms --Correa-Torres, Silvia Maria. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Dissertation Services. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education, August 2004. (2004) The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of social experiences among students with deafblindness, their hearing-sighted peers, and adults in inclusive settings. In this comparative case study, opportunities for communication by three students with deafblindness in general education settings were compared, and the strategies used by adults to promote interaction were observed. Parents, teachers, paraprofessionals, and an intervener of the students also participated in this study.


The Social Participation of Students with Deaf-Blindness in Educational Settings --Romer, Lyle T.; Haring, Norris G. EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, June 1994, pp. 134-144. (1994) This study examined the patterns of contact among 12 students with deaf-blindness and their non-disabled age peers at school.  Data revealed that students engaged in a mean of slightly less than 90 minutes of time per day in social contact with their non-disabled age peers. Students engaged in this socially integrated time across three environments: special education; general education; and the community in general.  Contact with increased numbers of age peers was found to be positively correlated with only the time spent in general education settings.  Further, it was discovered that many students with deaf-blindness, including those with the highest amounts of socially integrated times, were not developing stable (repeating) contacts with any of their peers.  The implications of these findings are discussed with regard to measuring valued outcomes associated with inclusive or integrated education for students with deaf-blindness. The authors conclude that there are certain frameworks that must be present in order for friendships to develop. First, you must meet a lot of people. Second, you must meet many more people than the number of friends that you expect to make.  Third, you have to see some number of those people over and over again to give friendship a chance to develop. Fourth,  you must have some means by which to share your experiences, histories, likes and dislikes, and other pertinent information with your acquaintenances, that is, there has to be a system of communication between people to determine if a friendship can develop.


Social Recognition, Participation, and the Dynamic Between the Environment and Personal Factors of Students with Deafblindness --Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth. American Annals of the Deaf, Spring 2007, Vol. 152, No. 1, 42-55. (2007) The study describes environmental and personal factors that, from the student perspective, impede participation in education in secondary upper schools by students with postlingual deafblindness. The discussion is framed by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The researchers use the theory of social recognition as a theoretical tool in understanding the dynamics between personal factors and environment in the context of secondary upper-school education. Thirty-four students with deafblindness responded to a questionnaire; the survey's findings indicate experiences of barriers in the natural and social environments that restrict participation. Experience of considerateness - such as concern for the special requirements of students with deafblindness - and experience of the lack of considerateness are the most important factors. Negative roles adapted by some students for themselves may be interpreted as resulting from a lack of recognition, in the form of denigration or insults.


Students With Deaf-Blindness and Their Families: Service Utilization and Satisfaction --Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Summers, Jean Ann. INCLUSION, Vol. 2, #3, 2014, pp. 195-211. (2014) Research specific to families of children with deaf-blindness is scarce. As more and more children who are deaf-blind receive services in inclusive settings the authors set out to explore the perceptions of  families on the services provided and their satisfaction level. The complexity of the team make-up is discussed. This article focuses on a study conducted on the satisfaction of service provision provided to these families as well as the use and nonuse of services.


Success of Three Gifted Deaf-Blind Students in Inclusive Educational Programs --Ingraham, C. L.; Daugherty, K. M.; Gorrafa, S. JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND BLINDNESS, May-June 1995, pp. 257-261. (1995) This article examines the challenges and successes of three academically gifted students in inclusive educational programs over four years and presents recommendations for teachers and parents who are contemplating the placement of students with similar needs in inclusive programs.  Discussion of technology needs and peer interaction is included.


Universal Design For Learning --Hartmann, Elizabeth, Ph.D. Monmouth, OR: National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness, Teaching Research Institute, Western Oregon University. PRACTICE PERSPECTIVES, #8, September 2011. (2011) This publication describes the basics of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and how it applies to students who are deaf-blind.  The information is intended to help teachers, parents, interveners, and individuals with deaf-blindness better understand UDL so that they can actively participate in the development of UDL practices.This is the eighth in a series of publications called Practice Perspectives, designed to increase the use of current information resources through the development of easily understandable products in accessible formats. Available on the web: Publisher's web site:


Welcoming students with visual impairment to your school : A guide to training public school personnel and families about the needs of students with vision loss --Heydt, Kathy; Lolli, Dennis; Miller, Tom; Pompano, Michael

 Riggio, Marianne; Wright, Darick. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind. (2006) This handbook aids Teachers of the Visually Impaired who need to conduct inservice trainings for general education teachers whose classrooms include students with visual impairments. Organized into four modules, Overview / Social Skills / Orientation and Mobility / Low vision, with full PowerPoint program included. Publisher's web site:


What Curricula and Instructional Practices are Currently Used with Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities? --Jackson, Richard. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Curriculum Access for Students with Low-Incidence Disabilities: The Promise of Universal Design for Learning. (2005) This chapter focuses on curriculum and instructional practices, toward a definition of curriculum, facing the challenges of curriculum access and blending general and specialized curriculum.  It addresses children who are blind and visually impaired, children who are deaf and/or hard of hearing, children who are deaf-blind, children with significant physical and multiple disabilities and children with austism. Available on the web:

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