- Selected Topics
- Accessing the General Curriculum
- Auditory Training
- Calendar Systems
- Concept Development
- Daily Living Skills
- Environmental Considerations
- Harmonious Interactions
- Lilli Nielsen and Active Learning
- Orientation & Mobility
- Play & Recreation
- Social Interactions
- Tactile Strategies
- Universal Design for Learning
- van Dijk Approach
Instructional Strategies and the Achievement of Life Skills - Bibliography
This is a partial list of materials on this topic available from the NCDB Catalog Database. If you have additional questions, please contact us via email: email@example.com
Accelerometer-Assessed Physical Activity and Objectively Determined Dual Sensory Impairment in US Adults --Loprinzi, Paul D. Ph.D.; Smit, Ellen, Ph.D.; Lin, Frank R. MD, Ph.D.; Gilham, Ben Au.D.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y. MD, Ph.D., MHS. MAYO CLINIC PROCEEDINGS, vol. 88, #7, July 2013, pp. 690-696. (July 2013) OBJECTIVE:
To examine the association between hearing and vision impairment (with the focus on dual sensory impairment) and accelerometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in a national sample of US adults because limited research has examined this association.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Data from the cross-sectional 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The data were evaluated between May 28, 2012, and March 27, 2013. To assess moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA, participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days. Hearing and visual acuity were objectively measured in the mobile examination center. After exclusions, 1445 participants provided complete data on the study variables. A negative binomial regression was used to examine the association between PA and dual sensory impairment.
After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, comorbidity index, cotinine level, C-reactive protein level, number of valid days of accelerometry, and accelerometer wear time, there was evidence of joint effects of vision and hearing on PA (incident rate ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29-0.68), indicating that participants experiencing both vision and hearing loss participated in less PA than would be expected based on their individual effects.
Adults with dual sensory impairment may be at increased risk for decreased PA. Possible strategies include, but are not limited to, teaching the patient how to make modifications to their indoor and outdoor environments, encouraging patients to engage in balance and resistance training, and advocating changes to public and private institutions to address common concerns.
Ambulation, Object Manipulation, and Multiple Disabilities : Extending the Applicability of a Robot --Lancioni, G. E.; Oliva, D.; O'Reilly, M. F. JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & BLINDNESS, vol. 91, #1, Jan.-Feb. 1997, pp. 53-60. (1997) The article discusses the usefulness of robots for two deaf-blind people with severe multiple disabilities. In each case, a robot helped low-functioning individuals to increase their ambulation and to transport and put away objects. The authors conclude that robots could be useful in working with people with severe multiple disabilities by providing increased opportunity for ambulatory movement, stimulation, object manipulation, and independence, improving their quality of life, and freeing the time of care providers in residential facilities.
An Approach to Teaching Self-Dressing to a Child with Dual Sensory Impairment --McKelvey, Jenifer L.; Sisson, Lori A.; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Hersen, Michel. TEACHING EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN, vol. 25, #1, Fall 1992, pp.12-15. (1992) A self-help skills instructional program used graduated guidance as a method of teaching independent dressing to an 11-year-old girl with profound mental retardation, seizure disorder, deafness, and blindness. Dressing skills improved with instruction and were maintained. Task analyses are presented for putting on socks, shorts, and shirts.
Approaches to Teaching Orientation and Mobility --Joffee, E. New York: AFB Press. Hand in Hand, Essentials of Communication and Orientation and Mobility for Your Students Who Are Deaf-Blind, Volume I K,M. Huebner, J.G. Prickett, T.R. Welch and E. Joffee (Eds.) (1995) Module 18 of this book addresses relying on team collaboration to plan the student's O&M program; base instruction on thorough assessment; using the student's communication modes in all O&M instruction and adapting travel techniques and tools to individualize needs. Publisher's web site: http://www.afb.org.
Assisted Ambulation and Activity for Restless or Passive Persons with Profound Multiple Disabilities. --Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Campodonico, Francesca. BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS, vol. 15, Issue 4, October/December 2000, pp. 331-343. (2002) Two adults with profound multiple disabilities and restlessness or passivity were exposed to two occupational conditions involving (a) robot-assisted ambulation and activity in a fairly large area and (b) unassisted ambulation and activity in a small area. The aim was to examine the participants' performance (independent activities, ambulation, and challenging behavior) in the two conditions and their possible preferences between those conditions. Data showed that the participants had higher percentages of independent activities, higher percentages of ambulation, and somewhat lower percentages of challenging behavior in the condition with the robot. The participants also seemed to prefer this condition over the one without the robot. Implications of the findings were discussed.
Automatically Delivered Stimulation for Walker-Assisted Step Responses : Measuring its Effects in Persons with Multiple Disabilities --Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N..; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta.; Piazolla, Georgia; Pidala, Sara; Smaldone, Angela; Manfredi, Francesco. JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND PHYSICAL DISABILITIES, February 2007, vol. 19, #1, pp. 1-13. (2007) The present two studies evaluated the effects of automatically delivered stimulation for walker-assisted step responses with four persons with multiple disabilities. In Study I, the participants (two children) wore two optic sensors at their heels, which were activated by the performance of steps. Each sensor activation produced a 2.5-s stimulation during the intervention and post-intervention periods. In Study II, the participants (two adults) wore a single optic sensor at their right leg. Sensor activation produced 5 or 6 s of stimulation during the intervention phases. Data were satisfactory with both technical arrangements (i.e., with one or two sensors); all four participants had significant increases in step responses and indices of happiness during the intervention phases. The two children of Study I retained these effects at a 1-month post-intervention check programmed for them. The effects of the stimulation procedure on aberrant behavior(assessed only in Study I) were mixed.
Balance and Mobility --Thelin, James W. Ph.D.; Curtis, Sarah E., Au.D.; Maddox, Jill Fussner, Au.D.; Travis, Lori S., Au.D. San Diego: Plural Publishing, Inc. CHARGE Syndrome, T.S. Hartshorne, M. A.Hefner, S.L.H.Davenport, J.W..Thelin (Eds.) (2011) Chapter 6 of this book addresses that the anomalies that typically are present in children with CHARGE syndrome often result in the delay of the development of balance and mobility. Although delays in the development of blaance and moblity likely have multiple causes, vetibular dysfunction is considered to be a major factor. Three studies are described that were conducted at the University of Tennessee. Publisher's web site: www.pluralpublishing.com.
Balance and Self-Efficacy of Balance in Children with CHARGE Syndrome --Haibach, Pamela S.; Lieberman, Lauren J. JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & BLINDNESS, vol. 107, #4, July-August 2013, pp. 297-309. (July-August 2013) A relationship was found between the balance self-efficacy of the children with CHARGE syndrome and their objectively measured balance. Self-efficacy of balance has been correlated with an increased risk of falls and with decreased participation in physical activities. Increased physical activity with a focus on balance and movement would likely improve these children’s balance and self-efficacy of balance. Implications for practitioners: Practitioners should understand that children with CHARGE syndrome will likely have poorer balance and lower confidence in their balance. Balance confidence and capabilities have implications for the development of motor milestones, such as walking, and the ability to perform functional activities. Future research should examine interventions to improve both balance and confidence in balance in these children.
Behavioral Feeding Intervention with Deaf-Blind, Multihandicapped Children --Luiselli, James K. CHILD AND FAMILY BEHAVIOR THERAPY, vol. 10, #4, pp. 49-62. (1988) This research evaluated the behavioral treatment of self-feeding deficits in two children who were deaf-blind and multihandicapped. Procedures were implemented by direct care staff within a residential school program. Functional assessment was performed using single-case reversal designs. For each child, treatment increased feeding responses substantially over baseline levels. The results extend the application of behavioral feeding interventions to an understudied clinical population. Single-subject design study.
Blind Woman Who Is Mentally Retarded Promoting and Sharing the Occupational Engagement of a Dependent Deaf-Blind Adolescent --Lancioni, Giulio E.; Olivia, Doretta; Bartolini, Teresa. BEHAVIORAL RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT, vol. 5, #3, pp.149-157. (1990) A blind woman who is mentally retarded was employed (as a peer care-giver) to promote and eventually share the occupational engagement of a deaf-blind adolescent (trainee) who was dependent on physical prompting. A computer-aided program was used to provide objects for the responses and facilitate orientation and mobility. The trainee was also exposed to the computer-aided program individually to assess the effects of the program per se. The results showed highly positive changes only in the condition involving the peer care-giver. In this condition, the trainee performed high frequencies of correct responses. Moreover, the care-giver managed to share responding with the trainee. Technical and practical aspects of the findings are discussed. Single-subject design study.
Children with Sensory Impairments --Silberman, Rosanne K.; Bruce. Susan M.; Nelson, Catherine. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Educating Children with Multiple Disabilities: A Collaborative Approach, F.P. Orelove, D. Sobsey and R. K. Silberman. (2004) Chapter 10 provides content on definitions, prevalence, etiologies, and the impact of vision and hearing loss on development and learning. Unique characteristics of students with sensory impairments and multiple disabilities, along with specific adaptations, accommodations, and instructional strategies are provided. This book is a widely used textbook for undergraduate and graduate education in special education and related fields. It is also useful for practicing special and general educators. It emphasizes research-based guidance. Publisher's web site: www.brookespublishing.com.
Electronic Guidance System for Multihandicapped Blind Persons : Evaluating Its Effectiveness and Likableness --Lancioni, Giulio E.; Oliva, Doretta; Bracalente, Sandro. BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS, vol. 9, no. 2, 1994, pp. 93-103. (1994) An electronic guidance system was used to help two multihandicapped blind persons move and carry out activities within a large setting. Both subjects had previously been exposed to a robot-assisted program. The electronic guidance system consisted of three parts: a control unit, infrared light sources, and a portable device. The portable device provided the subjects with direction feedbacks concerning the activity places. Data showed that both subjects learned to use the device and thus could profitably engage in mobility and activity. When allowed to choose between the new system and the robot, one subject preferred the robot, the other the new system. A group of parents, who were shown video-tapes of the two subjects while working with the new system and with the robot, preferred the new system. Efficacy, likableness and cost of this system and of the robot are discussed.
Family handbook: Deaf-Blind Program --Perkins School for the Blind. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind. (1994) Perkins School for the Blind
Guidelines for Educational Interpreters Nebraska Department of Education. (2002) These guidelines assist school districts in providing appropriate educational interpreting services to children who require such services. The document is a key instrument in ensuring students who are deaf or hard of hearing have equal access to their educational environment. It provides information on best practices in the areas of ethical conduct, qualifications, and roles and responsibilities. Includes sections on the primary role of the educational interpreter, the role of the schools, and professional development. Appendices include additional resources on interpreting, sample job description, suggestions for testing situations, responsibilities of teachers working with children who are deaf or hard of hearing, a guide for substitute teachers working with sign language interpreters, Nebraska resources, and a glossary of commonly used terms in the field. Available on the web: http://www.education.ne.gov/sped/technicalassist/InterpretersGuideline.pdf.
Improvement of Feeding Skills in Multihandicapped Students Through Paced-Prompting Interventions --Luiselli, James K. JOURNAL OF THE MULTIHANDICAPPED PERSON, vol. 1, #1, pp. 17-30. (1988) Evaluated the efficacy of paced-prompting interventions in treating three multihandicapped sensory impaired students (aged 8, 13, and 18 years) who consumed food either excessively rapidly or slowly. Interventions required trainers to pace the students' eating using physical prompting procedures and to withold prompts when acceptable consumption rates were displayed. In three separate single-case reversal designs, the interventions were effective in improving each student's feeding skills. Two of the students were deaf-blind and the third was deaf and mentally retarded. Single-subject design study.
Independent Living : A Curriculum with Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments, Volume II : Self-Care and Maintenance of Personal Environment --Loumiet, Robin; Levack, Nancy. Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI) (1993) This three volume curriculum serves as a resource and guide for assessment, evaluation, and instruction of students with visual impairments. Volume II, Self Care and Maintenance of Personal Environment, includes building skills for tasks such as: dressing, keeping clean, eating, toileting, safety, telephone use, time-related concepts, obtaining and using money, and self-advocacy. Each volume is divided into goals which represent the major components of each subject. Each goal contains skills that are sequenced into age groups. Includes information about adapted materials and methods, and resources for teaching ideas and activities. Each volume also contains procedures and forms for initial assessment, on-going evaluation and suggestions for using this information to develop IEPs. This curriculum is intended for use with students who are blind or who have low vision and who are between the ages of five and twenty-one years. Cost: $55.00 for 3 volume set. Available from the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, Business Office, 1100 West 45th Street, Austin, Texas 78756-3494. Phone: (512) 206-9427 or (512) 206-9215. Publisher's web site: http://www.tsbvi.edu/publications/index.htm.
Independent Living : A Curriculum with Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments, Volume III : Play and Leisure --Loumiet, Robin; Levack, Nancy. Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI) (1993) This three volume curriculum serves as a resource and guide for assessment, evaluation, and instruction of students with visual impairments. Goals in Volume III, Play and Leisure, include managing leisure time well and demonstrating skills in the following areas: solitary and social play and leisure activities; engaging in physical play, games and sports; interacting with pets and nature; enjoying music, dance, arts and crafts; using reading, writing, speaking, and drama as leisure activities, and using science and technology for leisure purposes. Each volume is divided into goals which represent the major components of each subject. Each goal contains skills that are sequenced into age groups. Includes information about adapted materials and methods, and resources for teaching ideas and activities. Each volume also contains procedures and forms for initial assessment, on-going evaluation and suggestions for using this information to develop IEPs. This curriculum is intended for use with students who are blind or who have low vision and who are between the ages of five and twenty-one years. Cost: $55.00 for 3 volume set. Available from the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, Business Office, 1100 West 45th Street, Austin, Texas 78756-3494. Phone: (512) 206-9427 or (512) 206-9215. Publisher's web site: http://www.tsbvi.edu/publications/index.htm.
Independent Living : A Curriculum with Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments, Assessment and On-going Evaluation --Loumiet, Robin; Levack, Nancy. Austin, TX: Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (TSBVI) (1993) These are the assessment and evaluation forms that accompany the three volume publication: Independent Living: A Curriculum with Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments.
Language and Artistic Projection of the World. A Study of Reception of the Deaf-Blind Artists' Sculpture --Niestorowicz, Ewa. --Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin: Department of Visual Knowledge. The author researched how students within the Arts department of a university, who are fully competent as far as art criticism is concerned, judged sculptures created by people who are deaf-blind. The deaf-blind artists were composed of three groups (pre-lingual deafness-blindness, sign language users, and ethnic language communicators). Results of the survey indicated the world view of the artists using gestures and sign language have a specific worldview, differing from the artists using ethnic language. It confirmed the hypothesis that different languages construct different images of the world.
Maximizing the Independence of Deaf-Blind Teenagers --Venn, J. J.; Wadler, F. JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & BLINDNESS, March 1990, pp. 103-108. (1990) The goal of the Independent Living Project for Deaf/Blind Youth, described here, was to maximize the independence of teenagers who were multiply handicapped due to deafness, blindness, and mental retardation. The teenagers had been overprotected and sheltered in their previous environments. Their educational programs had emphasized one-on-one instruction and direct supervision so that few interaction skills or independent work skills were learned. The project included an independent living apartment in which a unique video monitoring system was used for indirect supervision. Skill areas of home management, personal management, social/emotional skills, work skills, and communication skills were emphasized. The teenagers' autonomy increased over the four and one-half years of the project. They learned many daily living and work skills they would not have learned in a more traditional program.
Meeting Personnel Training Needs : Deaf-Blind Self-Study Curriculum Project --Huebner, K. M.; Kirchner, C.; Prickett, J. G. JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AND BLINDNESS, May-June 1995, pp. 235-243. (1995) The federal Office of Special Education Programs funded a consortium-based project that produced a self-study manual, a videotape and discussion guide, a reprints collection, annotated bibliographies, and an in-service training manual called Hand in Hand: Essentials of Communication and Orientation and Mobility for Your Students Who Are Deaf-Blind. This article highlights the field-test evaluation of these materials by teachers, which provides a glimpse into the professional situation of the primary target group---teachers without specific training for teaching students who are deaf-blind. The teachers' pre- and post-test knowledge and attitudes about teaching these students are also analyzed.
Mobility Versus Sedentariness in Task Arrangements for People with Multiple Disabilities : An Assessment of Preferences --Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Camponico, Francesco.; Mantini, Marherita. RESEARCH IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, vol. 19, #6:Nov-Dec 1998, pp.465-75. (1998) This study was an attempt to assess preferences between a task arrangement involving mobility and a task arrangement involving sedentariness with three adults with multiple disabilities. Periods in which participants were exposed to both task arrangements were followed by periods in which they were allowed to choose between them. One participant had a strong preference for the task arrangement involving mobility from the beginning of the assessment. The other two participants developed a strong preference for the same task arrangement and showed higher levels of on-task behavior and/or of positive mood expressions within that arrangement. Aspects of the assessment as well as the use of assessment in daily contexts were discussed.
Orientation and Mobility for Students with Severe Visual and Multiple Impairments : A New Perspective --Joffee, E.; Rikhye, C.H. JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & BLINDNESS, Vol.85, #5, May 1991, pp. 211-216. (1991) An innovative program for teaching orientation and mobility (O&M) to students with severe sensory and cognitive impairments in the New York City public schools developed on the premise that these students do not have to master prerequisite concepts and techniques to learn O&M. It incorporated tactile and tangible communication systems to teach O&M and was structured so mobility education was embedded in the students' daily activities in school and at home. This article examines the traditional model of O&M and the assumptions about how such students learn to be mobile, describes the evolution of this innovative program, and presents guidelines for planning and implementing similar programs in other educational and rehabilitation settings.
Orientation and Mobility with Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind : An Initial Examination of Single-Subject Design Research --Parker, Amy T. JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & BLINDNESS, vol.103, #6, June 2009, pp.372-377. (2009) This article describes a systematic review of single-subject design studies on orientation and mobility (O&M) training for individuals who are deaf-blind. It sought to answer the following research questions: (1) What types of single-subject design research studies were conducted with participants with deaf-blindness from 1965 to 2007 in the area of increasing O&M skills? and (2) What types of interventions and practices were shown to be effective in building participants' competence in the area of O&M? Thirteen studies that collectively included twenty participants with deaf-blindness (age 8 to 36) were identified and the findings are reviewed. All studies were by the same lead scholar.
Parents Perceptions of Physical Activity for Their Children with Visual Impairments --Perkins, Kara; Columna, Luis; Lieberman, Lauren; Bailey, JoEllen. JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & BLINDNESS, vol. 107, #2, March/April 2013, pp. 131-142. (March/April 2013) Introduction: Ongoing communication with parents and the acknowledgment of their preferences and expectations are crucial to promote the participation of physical activity by children with visual impairments. Purpose: The study presented here explored parents' perceptions of physical activity for their children with visual impairments and explored barriers to physical activity. Methods: The 11 parents of children with visual impairments took part in one-on-one semistructured interviews that were transcribed and then analyzed through a constant comparative analysis. Results: Three themes emerged from the analysis of the data: the holistic benefits of physical activity, barriers to physical activity, and solutions to physical activity. Discussion: The results revealed that the parents valued and had high expectations for physical activity for their children; however, they believed that there were multiple barriers to overcome. Implications for practitioners: Adapted physical education and recreational professionals must include parents in planning and implementing physical education and physical activity programs. Infusing information about physical activity and physical education in the professional preparation of teachers of students with visual impairments is also part of this important solution. Last, preteaching basic foundational skills for movement and sports is important to ensure the participation of children with visual impairments in physical education and recreational activities later in life.
Robot for Guiding Multihandicapped Blind Persons to Carry Out Familiar Daily Activities --Lancioni, Giulio; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Guzzini, Francesco; Pirani, Patrizia. JOURNAL OF THE MULTIHANDICAPPED PERSON, vol. 2, no. 4, December 1989, pp. 271-282. (1989) This article describes a study designed to assess the viability of a robot for guiding two multihandicapped blind persons (one subject was deaf-blind the other blind and physically handicapped) to carry out daily activities within a relatively large setting. Findings are discussed in eterms of robot advantages and friendliness. Improvements and cost are also considered.
Robot to Provide Multihandicapped Blind Persons with Physical Guidance and Activity Choices --Lancioni, Giulio; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta. JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND PHYSICAL DISABILITIES, vol. 5, no. 4, December 1993, pp. 337-348. (1993) This article discusses a study that used a robot to assist two multihandicapped, blind persons, one of whom was deaf-blind. The study used an alternating treatment design to address three questions: (1) could the robot be made suitable for subjects who need physical support to walk; (2) could the robot be equipped with an activity keyboard that would allow the subjects simple activity choices; and (3) could the subjects' satisfaction at working with the help of a robot be assessed. Results showed that the robot was effective for guiding both subjects and included an activity keyboard that the subjects successfully used. Findings are discussed in terms of robot utility and friendliness.
Teaching Independent Toileting to Profoundly Retarded Deaf-Blind Children --Lancioni, Giulio E. BEHAVIOR THERAPY, vol. 11, pp. 234-244. (1980) Nine profoundly retarded deaf-blind children were trained to initiate and execute toileting activities independently. All subjects were able to achieve independence, and the rate of accidents dropped to zero. The acquired skills were also displayed for that part of the day during which training was not applied and were retained, with the exception of one case, after the intervention was discontinued. Single-subject design study.
Teaching Orientation and Mobility to Students with Vision and Hearing Loss --Lolli, D.; Sauerberger, D.; Bourquin, E.A. New York: AFB Press. Foundations of Orientation and Mobility Volume II - Instructional Strategies and Practical Applications 3rd ed.William R.Wiener, Richard L. Welsh and Bruce B.Blasch (Eds.) (2010) Chapter 17 addresses the special challenges to orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists when teaching people who are visually impaired and also have a hearing loss; these individuals are often referred to as deaf-blind or dual sensory impaired. It addresses available communication modes, travel issues, and useful skills for the deaf-blind person. Publisher's web site: http://www.afb.org.
Training Self-Feeding Skills in Children Who Are Deaf and Blind --Luiselli, James K. BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION, vol. 17, no. 4, October 1993, pp. 457-473. (1993) There are very few studies that describe programs to train self-feeding skills in young children who are deaf and blind. This research reports two single-case studies on the acquisition of self-feeding in children with developmental disabilities and combined visual and auditory impairments. Study 1 included the use of prompting, prompt-fading, and contingent sensory reinforcement procedures to train independent self-feeding in a 7-year-old girl. Study 2 incorporated social reinforcement and response interruption to refine the self-feeding skills of a 6-year-old. Both studies were conducted by direct-care providers within an educational setting and reported maintenance of skill acquisition at 4 and 8 month posttraining. Single-subject design study.
Two Multihandicapped Blind Persons Promoting Mobility and Activity in a Passive Deaf-Blind Companion --Lancioni, Giulio; Oliva, Doretta; Raimond, Daniela. JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND PHYSICAL DISABILITIES, vol. 4, #2, pp. 129-139. (1992) This study employed 2 multihandicapped blind persons as peer caregivers to promote mobility and activity in a deaf-blind companion (trainee) who required frequent physical prompting. Each peer caregiver worked separately with the trainee. A robot was used to facilitate orientation and mobility. A supply device was used to present "object-means" for the activities. The trainee was also exposed to treatment individually. Results showed that each peer caregiver succeeded in promoting mobility and activity in the trainee. Moreover, each peer caregiver was capable of combining the supervision of the trainee with personal constructive occupation. The trainee showed no improvement during individual treatment.